It is necessary that the spacecraft will move with a constant acceleration which is equal to the acceleration of a free falling on Earth (g = 9.8 m/s2). At such motion of the spacecraft, an artificially created force of gravity will act in a direction which is opposite to the motion. If there is no speed limit in outer space, the motion of the spacecraft may be accelerated, and deceleration from +g = +9.8 m/s2 to -g = -9.8 m/s2. If there are no speed limit then during the first half of the way the spacecraft should move with a + g acceleration, and during the second half of the way — with slowing of -g. In such movement, the establishment of terrestrial habitat for living creatures inside the spacecraft is possible.
Let’s consider the possibility of the spacecraft reaching the speed of light, under the condition of creating Earth’s gravity inside of it. That is, provided that the spacecraft will be moving with an acceleration which is equal to the acceleration of a free falling on Earth + g or -g.
Let’s consider the motion of the spacecraft when its acceleration is equal to +g.
- After which period time, during the acceleration +g, the spacecraft will reach the speed of light, and how far will it go during this time.
Let’s assume that we have a spacecraft that is necessary to disperse up to the speed of light, with an acceleration of +g, muzzle velocity can be neglected.
From the mechanics we know that during a constantly accelerated motion of the body, its speed can be determined by the formula:
v=v0+a . τ(v= a . τ if v0 – it is ignored)
where v – the velocity of the moving body (v = c ~ 300 000 km/s);
v0 – the initial velocity of the moving body, this parameter can be ignored;
a = g = 9.8 m/s2 – the acceleration of the moving body;
τ – the time of motion of the body.
The speed of the spacecraft moving with constant acceleration is:
v=a . τ=g . τ
The time for reaching the speed of light by a space vehicle which is moving with a constant acceleration is equal to:
τ=a/v =g/v=30612244.9 s=354.3 days.
That means, if the spacecraft will move with a constant acceleration of a = g = 9.8 m/s2, then after 354.3 days (almost a year), its speed will be equal to the speed of light.
If the speed limit in space does not exist, then it possible that the motion of the spacecraft speed is exceeding the speed of light by few times. In this case, the motion of the spacecraft with a constant acceleration g, the increase of its speed by one light-speed will take place after 354.3 days. That means, the spacecraft will reach a speed equal to two speeds of light after τ=2 . 354.3 days = 708.6 days, the speed equal to three times the speed of light after τ=3 . 354.3 days = 1062.9 days, and so on.
- How far will the spacecraft go during 354.3 days, while it accelerating to the speed of light?
This distance can be determined by the mechanics formula:
L=(a . τ2)/2=(g . τ2)/2
L = 4591836735306122.45 m = 4.592 . 1015 m = 4.592 . 1012 km
For comparison, here is some data:
1 light year (ly) = 0.3069 pc = 9.463 . 1012 km
1 parsec (pc) = 3.2616 light years (ly) = 3.08568 . 1013 km
If the increase of the speed of the spacecraft is up to two light speeds, then the path traversed by this machine is:
L = 18367346938775510.2 m = 18.367 . 1015 m = 18.367 . 1012 km
As seen from the calculations, during the increasing of speed up to two light speeds, the device will traverse the path, almost as if it has moved during this time with the speed of light. If the increase of speed of the spacecraft will be up to three light speeds, the path will be:
L = 41326530612244897.96 m = 41.32 . 1015 m = 41.32 . 1012 km
With increasing of speed up to three light speeds, the machine will be on the way for three years, the same as if it was moving with the speed of light for four years. That mean, one year is being saved.
- To resistance to the gas-dust environment is a major obstacle for the spacecraft at the development of maximal possible speed. The motion of the spacecraft in the solar system with the first, the second and the third cosmic speed does not meet significant resistance from the environment, since in the heliosphere of the Sun the density of the matter is very low, due to the particles displacement of the solar wind streams. Outside the heliosphere, the density of dust and gas increases, which increases the resistance to the motion of the spacecraft. When moving in outer space at the speed of light, the spacecraft and its body will feel the resistance of dust and gas particles. Will the body of the spacecraft hold to such resistance, because it is equivalent to the radiation particles moving at the speed of light? It is plausible, that on motion of the spacecraft in the gas-dust environment of interstellar space, there is speed limitation associated with the resistance of the matter particles. Is the increase of the maximum speed performance of the spacecraft is possible?
It is possible by the creation of a new super-strong and heat-resistant body materials and optimal design solutions.
Let’s consider the theory that was expressed previously, about the existence of black holes in the open space.
Despite the «foolishness» of this theory, it is possible that among all of the modern theoretical astrophysics, only this one has a real physical basis.
In the chapter «the black hole» we looked at the device of a black hole, the accretion disk and the jet. In the center of the black hole and the jet there should be a discharged field. That is, under the influence of vortex motion of gas from the center of the jet and the black hole, the particles of dust and gas are absorbed into the walls of the jet and the accretion disk. Consequently, a vacuum region should be in the center of the jet along its length. Vacuum – relatively to the surrounding space. Since the surrounding space is unloaded, it’s possible that in the center of the jet and the accretion disk the vacuum is close to absolute. That means, in this area there is no matter particles, or hardly any. The lack of gas and dust particles reduces the resistance of the surrounding space to the moving pacecraft down to zero. Therefore, in this field there is no resistance during the motion of the spacecraft. Consequently, in the center of the jet it is possible for spacecraft to reach speeds exceeding of the speed of light, and perhaps exceeding it by several times.
That is, the Jets are passages or tunnels in space, inside of which the spacecraft can reach speed without any restrictions.
In order to use these transitions, we need to understand how to get into the tunnels, and how to get out of them?