Welcome To New Analytical AstrophysicsArticles | Forum | Author

These and many other questions we cannot yet answer.
For an objective analysis of the universe it is necessary to collect the maximum amount of information. With the development of the scientific-technical progress, the quantity and accuracy of the information obtained will improve and grow. Analytical studies should be periodically reviewed and refined.
What is necessary today for the analysis of the universe?
- To build a voluminous and most complete map of the universe, or more precisely, the parts of the space of the universe, that we have information about. This map should display not only galaxies and stars, but also gas and dust streams, «white dwarfs», «neutron stars», planets, «supernovae stars». The location of «black holes» needs special care. I would start the voluminous map of the universe from placing the «black holes», on it, indicating their size. Many other data will logically fit into this map. Let’s try to predict the vision of the part of the universe that accessible to us both visually and logically. Most likely, the universe must be similar to the galaxy, just bigger. In the initial period of development, the universe may have the form of an ellipse, and then transformed into a spiral form. Evolving form a spiral, possibly into the irregular kind of transformation. We suggest three possible ways of development, but there may well be other options, including those we have referred above (see «Black Hole»).
- First way. Big Bang, the mass of material scatters in different directions, where there is synthesis, the scattered matter collapses and elliptical galaxies are born. Which, while developing, move into spiral galaxies. After the big bang in its epicenter there is a «black hole» of huge size, which sucks gas and dust from space. After some time, this process is repeated, similar to the development of galaxies, but of enormous size.
- The second way. It all started with an explosion, with the birth of a «black hole» and elliptical galaxies, the stars that were thrown out had large masses, and later collapsed turned into «black holes». Later, these «black holes» grew and turned into new centers of galaxies.
- The third way. It began from the birth of a star of large mass. At the end of its life the star collapses, and in its place remains a «black hole», which sucks from space material in the form of gas and dust. Until it reaches critical parameters. Then, a star of great mass is born, or few stars. At the end of its life, the star with the large mass collapses, creating a large «black hole», then all the processes are repeated, until the black hole grows to sizes that can gather material that sufficient for the birth of several stars. After the birth of few stars, this «black hole» becomes the center of the galaxy, during further development, it’s increasing its size, and many stars that were born in it turn into «black holes» themselves, and eventually become the centers of galaxies.
- Fourth way. Perhaps the birth of the universe did not began with an explosion, but with the emergence of a «black hole», which brought together a huge mass of gas, packed it in a star of a large mass. The collapse of this star, has led to the emergence of a «black hole» even larger. This large «black hole», collected the gas and packed it into a star of even larger mass. After going through the cycles several times, the grown up «black hole» made not one, but several stars, and by that produced the first elliptical galaxy. This elliptical galaxy, evolving, turned into the universe.
- The fifth way. The formed «black hole» made not a single star, but a few stars, i.e., the development of the universe started with an elliptical galaxy.
Could the birth of the universe begin with the appearance of «black hole»?
Is the sudden appearance of «black hole» in outer space is possible?
We tried to answer these questions in the «black hole» chapter.
As one of the options, there was considered the option that when the motion of gas flows into the outer space, there was swirling gas flow, that formed cosmic tornado and a «black hole».
During the origin of the universe, the density of gas in outer space was higher. To determine the gas density in the initial period of life of the universe there must be a lot of objects of the universe added to the gas mass of the universe and divide it by the volume of the universe.

 The average density of the material in the universe is a constant. That’s because the whole mass of material of the universe remains in the bulk of the universe. During the lifetime of the universe, gas packaged in stars and star ruptured, transformed into other objects, the density of interstellar gas in space has changed and continues to change (decrease). The gas density in the time of the birth of the universe was higher. 

An explosion in an area of medium density, the energy of the mass that was ejected by the explosion, was quickly extinguished, because of the resistance of denser gas in the surrounding space. Reversed shock waves directed at the epicenter of the explosion, possibly because of high gas density will be stronger and have higher speed and will be shorter. The next cycle of collecting and packaging of gas in the «black hole» must go faster than the modern cycles, because of high gas density of the surrounding space. At the time of the birth of the universe, it took less time for collecting of gas in the «black hole» and wrapping it into the stars, because the dynamic processes in a dense gas go faster. When collecting the same mass of material, with higher density gas, the volume of the «black hole» may be smaller.
Consequently, in the initial period of the birth of the universe, the first volume of «black holes» may have not been very large. Time cycles of the process of the gas collecting in the «black hole» and the ejection of stars from the «black hole» may have been shorter than at the present. Consequently, during the birth and the initial period of the universe, its development was faster.
It’s still unknown in what way our universe went. But it is possible that, the first explosion was not necessarily very powerful. There is even more interesting question: «How the mass of gas was collected for the production of this first explosion? ». Perhaps, a «black hole» participated in here as well. What was before the «big bang» or the «black hole», which gathered the material for this explosion?
Maybe there is one big «black hole», which is located in the center of the universe. Or there are few «black holes», which are also the centers of the universe, but there are great distances between them. Perhaps the «black hole» or the «black holes», located in the center of the universe, and aren’t that huge. The volume of the vacuum around the black holes is limited to a circular gas flow, such as «accretion disk» and the galactic disk.
Perhaps the universe has some kind of circular and spiral clusters of stars and galaxies located in each other, surrounding vacuum fields, illustration № R-10.10. Ring and spiral clusters of stars and galaxies are formed in the gas flow surrounding the vacuum volume «Vacuum 1», «Vacuum 2», «Vacuum 3». Perhaps the vacuum inside of each ring is higher than the vacuum outside the ring.
                                                           

89-178-En str 89

                                                (178)  IllustrationR-10.10

 Under the influence of the «black holes», there is a movement of gas and dust in the universe.
From these centers, in moment of explosions eject stars or elliptical galaxies, with a «black hole» in their centers.

 «Black holes» are moving away from the center of the universe, absorbing material that moves to the center of the universe, and thus affect the change of the gas flow in the universe. 

Under the influence of «black holes», and the movement of gas flows, the universe changes its appearance, from a spherical (ellipsoid), to a spiral. In the gas flows that were created by the centers of the universe, also must born stars and galaxies.
This is a possible explanation to the existence of chains and clusters of galaxies.
There is absorption of gas in the universe, its packing into the stars and the ejection of these stars back into space.
That means, there is a simultaneous contraction and expansion of the universe. Compression occurs at the gas level, and the expansion occurs at the stellar and galactic levels.
For a man, the expansion of the universe and galaxies is noticeable, since the motion of stars and galaxies is more pronounced. Compression isn’t noticeable, it goes on the gas level and the movement of gases in the universe is definitely not visible. For the human, is visible expansion of the Universe and galaxies, as movement of stars and galaxies visually more appreciable process. As movement of gases in the Universe visually is not appreciable, hence, and the compression occurring at gas level for the human not considerably. Because of invisibility of the universe compression on the gas level, it’s common to think that the universe is only expanding.
Now, we see that the universe expands and contracts simultaneously. If there would be no compression on the gas level, there would be no increase on the level of stars and galaxies.
How the universe looks like? Where is its center? What’s in the center of the universe, and what was there before?
There are many questions that have no answers, yet.

                — Space exploration.

Sooner or later, the mankind will face the challenge of space exploration.
The main principles of the exploration of the outer space should be as follows:
- A peaceful coexistence of civilizations;
- No interfere with the evolution of other civilizations;
- Mutual assistance.
The main parameter of space exploration is time. The less you move from one space object to another, the more successful will be the exploration and the colonization of outer space planets with the civilization of the Earth. The faster and the more successful the reconnaissance and preparation of the planets for life will be carried out, the greater is the chance of saving the human civilization. The main parameter that affects the time space exploration is the movement speed of man in space. Perhaps, in the future people will be able to move in space instantly, as suggested by the science fiction writers. It is possible, that with the reach of the speed of light, time can stretched or compressed, as it was suggested by Einstein. Today, these statements are only theoretical assumptions or fantasies. We will rely on existing facts, and if new facts will appear — we shell change our theories and predictions.

The movement speed of man in space is limited by three factors:
- Technical characteristics of the modern aircraft;

- Resistance of the environment around the spacecraft;
- Physical and biological properties of the living beings, including humans.
Perhaps there is another factor that Einstein stated: the physical impossibility of achieving and exceeding the speed of light. But so far, this statement has no evidence, and we do not take it to account.
Let’s consider a good option for the movement of man in space, taking to account all of the three factors, based on the advances in the modern technology. We shall assume that perhaps the creation of the rocket engine with a propeller and fuel tank is capable to deliver a person to the selected point of space. That means that it possible to assume that over the time, the creation of such aircraft with these technical properties, will allow the humans to achieve their goals in space.
Let’s consider whether there is a possibility to solve the physical and the biological problems of human and other living organisms’ habitation in spacecraft, due to the absence of gravity?
Such
asolutionispossible!