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10. The universe and galaxies

This analysis is based on the research material described in the next scientific papers: P. Hodge «Galaxies», L. Suchkov «Galaxy», P. Pskovsky «Galaxies», V. Reshetnikov, «The surface photometry of galaxies».
The analysis of the development of the universe is very time-consuming process. The difficulty lies in the fact that it is impossible to establish objective star map for a specific period of time, because of the huge distances, which are responsible for a significant time delay in receiving information about the objects of the universe.
Consequently, we can’t know the level of development of the universe and star systems, in general, at any given time. On the other hand, we can analyze the dynamics of stars and stellar systems at different time stages, while receiving information about past, present and future similar stellar objects. The difference in distances from their coordinates to the Earth, gives us the timing difference in the development of these facilities. That means, observing the shift in time, we see development of the stars, stellar systems, and materials, available for our observation of the universe.
Modern astronomy and astrophysics research has gathered a huge material that must be processed and analyzed.
And thus we will be doing in this chapter. Of course, we won’t be able to analyze all the collected material in this work, but we’ll try to conduct a general analysis.
The analysis of processes in galaxies and the universe must be based on the analysis of the gas and dust as the source material for creating stars, and analysis of the location, movements, age and chemical composition of stars, as a work product of gas and dust of the outer space. It is necessary to pay attention to the location and size of
«black holes» during the analysis. For more accurate analysis we should take into account the existence and movement of «white dwarfs» and «neutron stars». Since their processes affect the movement of gas and dust in galaxies and the universe.
How to conduct an analysis on this topic?
First: it is necessary to conduct an
«internal analysis», or analysis of the internal processes in galaxies. In this analysis we should answer the following questions:
– «Where?», «Why?», «Why?» The gas is moving inside the galaxy.
– «From where?», «Where to?» and «Why?» are the stars of the galaxy are moving.
– «How?» and «Where?» happens the birth of stars from gas and dust?
This analysis should be carried out for all the major morphological groups of galaxies.
Secondly: it is necessary to conduct an external review, which in this case coincides with the group analysis.
There is a huge group of galaxies, similar and dissimilar to each other.
Analysis of these groups must answer the following questions:

– What is the difference between the groups of galaxies?
– Is there a general pattern in the structure and development of galaxies? 
In all kinds of analysis, all processes should be regarded as links in a continuous chain of events, based on the laws of classical physics (experimentally verified) that do not contradict each other.


The modern definition: «Galaxy – is a large number of stars combined by forces of gravity into the star system».
Types of Galaxies. The galaxies divided into morphological types by appearance and structure: 

   – Irregular galaxies. Their share is 5% of the total.
These galaxies have matted form. They contain up to 50% of gas from the mass of the entire star system.
– Elliptical galaxies. Share 25% of the total. They consist mainly of old stars and they filled with discharged hot gas.
– Spiral galaxies. About 50% of the total. They consist of a convex central part, spheroidal cloud of stars – the halo, and twisted to one side «sleeves» falling out of it.
– Lens galaxy. Consist 20%. Is an intermediate between spiral and elliptical galaxies. There is a «bulge», the halo and disk, but no spiral «sleeves».
The analysis of the galaxies should begin with an analysis of the gas and dust in them. Given that this paper is being published for the first time and the reader is unprepared theoretically, and more accurate to say ideologically, to the perception of this material, we begin our analysis of galaxies with more visual aids, with an analysis of the location and movement of stars.
Based on the results of this analysis, we predict, as possible, a logical flow of gas and dust in galaxies, and then compare the results of prediction with a practical research.
Let’s start with a simple analysis of the galaxy «Sombrero». For clarity, we’ll visually examine this spiral galaxy, which clearly shows its spherical halo. 

                                                                   Galaxy M104 «Sombrero» (www.nasa.gov)

                                                                           (169) Illustration № R-10.1

  If we’ll look at the image of «Sombrero» galaxy cast with a superficial eye, without taking into account that this is a galaxy, we could say that this is a picture of a nuclear explosion. Indeed, this galaxy, and to be more specific, its halo, looks like an explosion. Consequently, such a spherical or ellipsoidal shape of a galaxy could be the result of a nuclear explosion.
If this was indeed an explosion, then in the center of the spherical part supposed to be a «black hole», that’s corresponds to the reality of most galaxies. In other words, we found two acts to the fact that many galaxies with similar shapes are formed by nuclear explosions.
The first evidence – is the spherical form of the galaxy, or of its central part – the halo.
The second witness – is the existence of «black hole» in the center of the spherical parts of the galaxies.