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        2.3. The structure of the nucleus of an atom

     Investigating the physical processes in stars, we have to investigate the processes of nuclear physics. Investigating the processes of nuclear physics, we have to investigate the structure of the nucleus.                                                                          
More and more modern scientists and researchers understand, that the operating theories of a kernel structure have become outdated long time ago, and that the quantum mechanics is «an old curtain» which theorists use in order to hide the «white spots» of physics. Theories operating today about kernel structures were created in the beginning of the past century, by scientists which where the discoverers of nuclear physics.
The authority of «fathers» of nuclear physics is very high. All the subsequent scientists not only learned from them, but also developed their theories. In the scientific environment these «masters» are being idolized. Today many scientists offer models and theories simpler and more objective, turning away from the bulky quantum mechanics, but in the huge stream of information, these talented, but not titled researchers are not audible, and their theories and development are not considered.
       In the beginning and the middle of the past century, as a result of scientific and technical progress the experimental physics began to develop quickly in researches, the theoretical physics could not move with the same speed since for gaining theory as much objective as possible, the data which was received practically is necessary, but the life demanded explanations of the discovered phenomena. Also, theories that were made up in a hurt began to appear. The second part of this psychological (or psychiatric) problem consist that experts agreed to these theories. It is cheaper and quicker to make up acomplex theory, than to create expensive equipment, for studying the structure of a kernel. If we revise the history and the purposes of the creation of nuclear physics, in conditions of military superpowers we shall understand that physicists did not have the time for creating expensive and complex equipment, and for studying the kernel in-and-out.
Many theories of theoretical and quantum physics have been developed in a hurry, if revealed a physical phenomenon, immediately him was given an explanation and for this phenomenon invented theories and laws. Further work in this area of physics has led to the development of expressed hypotheses ​​by transferring them to the class of fundamental, that is inviolable, instead of reviewing and analyzing all the possible data.
With time, the quantity of experimental data becomes sufficient for the transition «from quantity in quality». At this stage of work analyzing the practical data is necessary, which by observing the phenomena similar in the nature and by the laws of classical physics, could develop a real fundamental theory. But instead of following this logical scheme of action, the scientists lean on non objective doctrines, leading the science to a dead end.
In order to understand what occurs in a star and to a star during all time, it is necessary for us to understand what occurs to a kernel of atom during synthesis and the division, what forces operate in a kernel and on a kernel.
Unfortunately, the theories that were developed by the «fathers» of nuclear physics almost hundred years ago do not give answers to the majority of questions we’re interested in, due to the absence of organic laws of this science. It is known, that to the basic obstacles for synthesis of two and more kernels, are coulomb forces pushing away of positive charges. Theoretically these forces can be calculated in the formula

                        8-1                             (2.25)                                                                                                                             


                                     R = R1+ R2                                                                      (2.26)

  R – the distance on which it is necessary to pull together both kernels for synthesis.   

  R1, R2 – radiuses of kernels participating in synthesis and proportional to the number of nucleons in kernels. 

In the given work we shall accept the factor of proportionality – 1.4. Although for easy kernels it equals to-1.2.

                                      Rj=1.4 . Aj                                                                      (2.27)

   Aj – number nuclides in j kernel

 In practice the value of force Fk is lower. The theoretical physics, today, explains this divergence by the tunnel effect, leading to the quantum mechanics. But there are also other opinions. Some researchers today consider, that the kernel is not an absolute sphere, and this deviation gives decrease in the forces of pushing away. That is logical.
Others consider that the kernel has a crystal structure, and it is logical as well. We consider that all these variants are necessary for analyzing closely.
Let’s analyze the modern model of a kernel, based on the operating theories developed in the first half of the past century.
The analysis reveals logic and physical mistakes.
For example: in order for the charged particle to enter or to leave a kernel, it should possess the energy necessary for overcoming a power barrier.
Let’s try to simulate such kernel logically.
For a flying particle-proton, this model will look as a sphere which all charge is concentrated in the center, as shown in fig. № R-2.5.

8-2-7-En str-8-2

(7) Figure № R-2.5.

For a particle that aspiring to leave a kernel, the model should look as a sphere which all charge is concentrated on its periphery, and in that place, this particle should overcome full coulomb power barrier of all kernel whence should take off. And it is possible only under the condition of its concentration in one place through which the particle will leave the kernel. As shown in fig.№ R-2.6.


(8) Figure № R-2.6.

Or as shown in fig. № R-2.7. The charge is distributed on an environment of a kernel in regular intervals and in any point of this environment the value of a charge to equally full charge of a kernel, That means, the environment of a kernel is a continuous charge.


       (9) Figure № R-2.7.