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                          9. The end of stars’ life

What happens to a star at the end of its life? Which physical processes makes the star widening up to size of «red giant», compress to size of «white dwarf» and to collapse (to explode)?

These questions being asked by astronomies and Astrophysics for over a century, but there are no answers by now. Modern theories about «gravitation collapse», «neutron star», «black hole» are all fantasies of famous authors, but there definitely aren’t resemble scientific theories.

In this chapter we’ll analyze events occurring to the stars. And will pick physical laws that can be the reason for these events. In other words, we won’t make up our own laws, like it being done in theoretical physics for explaining incomprehensible phenomena. We’ll open a textbook of classic physics, we’ll pick a law, according to whom the phenomena can occur, and we’ll «insert» it into the chain of events.

  The participation in the synthesis of nuclear fuel leads to a maximum allocation of energy and the creation of a high-energy plasma in the «active zone» of the star. Perhaps during the star’s transition to the red giant phase, a large part of the nuclear fuel (hydrogen, perhaps some of the helium isotopes) is being spent. The plasma energy in the «active zone» of the star is not enough to keep the gas-plasma mix in the volume of the star.
Nuclear reactions with heavy elements (decay, fission, nuclear explosions) which occur on the surface of the kernel, in the kernel and in the 
gas-plasma mix, increase the energy potential, and the volume of gas-plasma mix. While expanding, the gas-plasma mix breaks the weak «active zone» the shell of the star.

What is the reason for stars collapse?

This question is one of the most crucial ones in the astrophysics. Knowing the answer will allow us to know what happens in the depths of the star during its life.

  The theory that claims that star collapse caused by compression of its material under the activation of its mass is mistaken, gently speaking. Since there’s no scientific data that confirms it.

But in nuclear physics there are plenty of experiments and tests that clearly support the theory we suggest.

Let’s compare the facts:

In outer space there are stars with small, medium and large masses.

In the outer space, a star with little mass Mz < 1.5 Ms (Ms – mass of the sun) after occurring the stage of red giant turns into a white dwarf and fade out during some time.

Stars with average mass 1.5 Ms < Mz < (3~5) Ms, after occurring the stage of red giant and white dwarf – collapse and turn into neutron star.

Stars with large mass (3~5) Ms < Mz  are going through the same stages like average mass stars, but after collapsing, they turning into «black hole». Therefore, the behavior of the star determined by its mass. Especially at the end of the stars life.

What’s the collapse of a star?

Simply speaking, it’s an extremely powerful «nuclear» explosion.

 What happens in the bowels of the stars?

Scientists realized that nuclear reactions take place is the star already in the previous century. The main nuclear reactions in the stars are nuclear reaction of the synthesis. The main source of energy in stars is thermonuclear reactions of the synthesis.

Now let’s open a textbook in nuclear physics and see, perhaps we’ll find similar processes, and perhaps these processes are influenced by the amount of substances involved.

Yes! These kinds of processes exist in nuclear physics!

These processes consist of a fission and spontaneous decay of heavy and very heavy nucleuses. Fission of uranium U and plutonium Pu used in nuclear reactor in energetic and during explosions of «uranium» bombs. An explosion of «uranium» bomb is a model of star collapse.

Let’s disassemble the main principles and see the analogy of these nuclear processes with the behavior of stars on the edge of their lives.

In order to make a nuclear reactor fueled with uranium U or plutonium Pu to work and create energy, it’s necessary that the mass of the used fuel would be of certain value, which is «critical» or higher.

Minimal mass of nuclear fuel in certain physical conditions in which a chain-reaction of fission takes place called «critical mass».

The «uranium» bomb is based on the same principle.

If the mass of explosive substance is lower the «critical» mass, there will be no explosion, and that’s what we see in stars of little mass.

If the mass of uranium in the bomb is beyond critical, a nuclear explosion occurs. The more uranium mass over the critical amount — the greater is the explosion of the bomb. During the explosion there is 10% of the bomb used. Perhaps we observe the same principle in the case of the stars.

If the mass of the star is not too big, the star isn’t collapsing.

If the mass of star reach some critical values that means, a «critical» or over «critical» mass of heavy atoms — the star collapse.   

The heavier the star’s mass is, the heavier the mass of the heavy atoms are at the end of its life. Then more exceeds critical weight, weight of heavy atoms synthesized in a star by the end of a life, the more powerfully explosion of a star at the moment of a collapse. We do not know what accumulation of atoms, leads to nuclear explosion of a star. But, judging by the fact that sometimes after the collapsing neutron stars remains, we can say with a great amount of certainty that the explosion occurs at development of chain reaction of fission of heavy kernels by neutrons. It is probable that division chain reaction is carried out with the participation of kernels of uranium U and plutonium Pu. Processes of disintegration and fission of super-heavy kernels, which are not exist in the Earth conditions, but synthesizing in the start.

It is possible that the self-disintegration of these super-heavy kernels gives the trigger to the beginning of fission reaction. Therefore, the gravitational compression of a star cannot be the reason of the star collapse, since there are no proofs of the existence of these physical phenomena.

The existence of «neutron star» and the fact of dependence between the power of explosion (the collapse)of a star from its weight, is the act of nuclear explosion of stars by division of heavy kernels by neutrons though it is impossible to exclude possibility of existence of spontaneous disintegration of heavy both super heavy kernels, and its influences in the given process.

Next, the fission of heavy kernels is the evidence of the fact that inside the star there are atoms synthesizing and gathering of heavy elements of the periodic table. So, in analytical way, by minor details we defined that during the life of the star, there is synthesizing process of not only small, but also of heavy and extra-heavy kernels.

The proof of this fact is the existence of «neutron stars» and the fact that the stars mass has an influence over the collapse and its power.

Let’s put together a chain of events that happen to a star.

- Evolution of the stars with small mass

At the beginning of it life, the star consist of a kernel that holds compressed fuel. Which kind of kernel is it, solid, liquid or gaseous – we don’t know yet. Coition of few states of the material is possible.