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                     Physics of black holes

                                                                Articles 3: Physics of black holes

                                              7. «A black hole»

  The physicists are educated people who are capable to predict, but they aren’t prophets!

In astrophysics, there are facts of theoretical «prediction» of the existence of physical objects and phenomena which, almost in all cases appear to be erroneous. An example of such forecast that appeared to be inexact is the forecasts about «the black hole» and «the neutron star».

The existence of a space object with a strong gravitational field has been predicted. Through hundreds years of researches, an object with similar peculiarities has been found. Because of huge distances, direct research of such objects is impossible. Hence, the reception of objective knowledge about it is impossible as well.

  What have the researchers found in the open space?

 In the open space, the researchers have found area of space to where gas and dust is being drawn, forming a gas funnel of huge sizes. Since the given space is drawing substance, the researchers have attributed a gravitational field to this place. If a gravitational field is presented, there should be a gravitation source in its center. But the gravitation source was never found…

  What should be done? The gravitation is presented, and the source of it isn’t?! Another theory about «a dark matter» is being born. Ostensibly, there is «a dark matter» that nobody can see and nobody can find which creates this strong gravitational field. Matter under a cap the invisible being.

What do we have as «a black hole», from the point of view of modern astrophysics? An area, in the center of a gravitational field, having no source of gravitation, and «a dark matter» which nobody will never see, and nobody will never find.

Why the gravitational field of «a black hole» has no source of gravitation? And why is this «dark matter» will never be found? We’ll learn all this from this chapter, after maintaining an analytical research of the phenomenon of «black hole», based on indirect data.

   In an analytical research, the phenomena of «the black hole», the method of «elimination of break of information stream» is applied. This method of the analysis is necessary for understanding all the dynamics of events, phenomena and processes.

It is the most affective in cases when the object, event, phenomena and process of the collected information are inconvenient or impossible. In such cases basing on events,  phenomena and the processes occurring before and after the events we’re interested in, the phenomena and processes, is modeling the chain of events on which defines the models of events, phenomena and processes we’re interested in. Or there in a search conducted, of similar chains of events,  phenomena and processes in the world around us, the material found is being analyzed, the prototypes or models of events, phenomena and processes we’re interested in are being defined, in the «chains» found and their analysis is made. An example of such analysis is the analysis of «the black hole», which was lead in the given work. A research of «the black hole» itself is a complex process, it might be even impossible. Since the action of vacuum is imperceptible, due to the absence of the basic attraction object and it is possible to define the presence of the vacuum only by indirect factors.

 In this case, the method of «elimination of break of a stream of the information» has been applied successfully. During the analysis of «a black hole» events which take place before its occurrence have been analyzed. Similar physical phenomena were found in the Earth conditions. They have been analyzed and compared to the phenomena, events and the processes taking place before the occurrence of «a black hole». Such process of analytical research has opened to us the physics of «the black hole», and has enabled us to make forecasts which proofed to be true during the research.

                          — Vacuum                                    

For the revision and analysis of the physical phenomena known as «the black hole» and «the collapse», it is necessary that we’ll consider another physical phenomenon – the «vacuum» which is the reason of «the black hole» existence.

In scientific researches, lots of attention is given to subjects like «the dark matter», «gravitation», «anti gravitation», while researches on physical phenomenon such as the «vacuum» are practically minimal. Certainly, theoretical physicists have theoretical researches on «the absolute vacuum», led by the principle of Russian fairy tales, «go somewhere, but I don’t know where, and bring something, but I do not know what».

  In reality, the physical phenomenon of the «vacuum» has a huge energy potential, and the forceful power field exceeding the gravitational field many times. Unfortunately, modern researchers underestimate this physical phenomenon; they don’t see that the huge power fields in the open space are created by vacuum, and not by the gravitation of a «dark matter» which exists only in their imaginations.     

The concept of vacuum in the physics means lack of gas pressure, up to a certain value (in terrestrial conditions, up to the atmospheric pressure). But the lack of energy is included in this concept as well. So, gas which is smaller on weight and quantity, but has higher temperature (higher energy), can equalize the pressure of other gas, with a greater weight, but lower temperature (with less energy). Hence, pressure and vacuum are energeticconcepts as well. From the experience of supervising natural phenomena, cyclones and typhoons, we see that a small decrease in the atmospheric pressure in great volumes actuates huge air weights that have extremely high speeds and cause huge damage to occupied districts, breaking houses, constructions and trees. What kind of huge force has the invisible molecules of air which destroying houses and cities? What weight of matter needed to be collected in one place, in order to make its gravitational force cause the same destructions?                               

                            — «The Gravitational collapse»

«The Gravitational collapse» — a compression of gas cloud or the star which have settled all of its nuclear energy sources, under action of its own gravitation.

«Gravitational collapse» of kernels of massive stars leads to a Supernova explosion and to a formation of «a neutron star» or «a black hole»»

                                                             (A. Zasov «The Gravitational collapse»)

The «collapse» is a very interesting phenomenon. It is interesting not only from the point of view of physics, but also from the point of view on the development of human thinking.

Theoretically, the idea about «a black hole» has been stated in 1793 and 1796 by John Mitchell and Laplace, independently from each other, and in 1968 – by an American physicist John Uilleron. A massive contribution to the theory of «the black hole» was brought by the British physicist Stephen Hawking. Regardless the huge work which was done by the scientific theorists during the twentieth century, the majority of theories and the works, which were developing these theories, cost less than the paper on which they are printed. Any theory about «a black hole» doesn’t give us an answer to the direct question: What is «the black hole», from the point of view of physics? Many theoretical physicians got confused by the theoretical philosophy and complex mathematics. But regardless the failures of theorists, the researchers have collected a huge practical material which requires an analysis.    

In order to understand what is «the black hole», it is necessary for us to lead an analytical work which includes:                      

   — The analysis of all chain of events which leads to this phenomenon;

   — The analysis of all chain of events during the existence of «a black hole»;

   — The analysis of similar phenomena in the world surrounding us (for all of the items listed above);

   — Selection of physical laws which explain the processes investigated by us and the phenomena;

   — Drawing the chain of the physical laws picked up by us, based and fit on all of the events chain and the facts;

   — The analysis of end results;

   — A generalization of the results received, and conclusions.