5. The equation of star existence
- Defining the conditions and concluding the equations of star existence
The version which claims that the kernel of a star is consisted of gas in which occurs synthesis of helium kernels, having the greater density and obey to the laws of ideal gas is so irrational, that we find even the consideration, nor the refutation of this erroneous theory, speaking softly, inappropriate! I wish to remind to the extremely ardent supporters of this theory: the distinction between gas liquid and firm substance, is in the density. At the present, the mankind is unfamiliar with gases with density 160 g/sm3 or 58 g/sm3, as in the Sun kernel, or even with density as uranium and plutonium of 18 g/sm3, 19 g/sm3.
In this section we shall try to define analytically the necessary conditions of star existence and to deduce the equation of its thermodynamic balance. We do intend to deduce this equation precisely; it’s a hard task not even for one researcher, but even for a group of researchers.
Our purpose is to draw the experts’ attention to the given problem, to show one of the possible directions to the solution, and to disassemble the mechanism, the structure and the possible influence the physical processes on each other, while occurring in a star.
Why «Existence…» instead of «Balance» of a star?
In a star, there are unstable dynamic processes which changing in value and in time as well.
Whether it is possible to define the given state of a star as equilibrium?
On the contrary, because of the balance absence in a star, there is a formation of «the white dwarf» in its kernel, and allocation of energy into the space. But if we consider a star as a separate object, being an energy source during a short time interval, taking in account some assumptions, it is possible to accept the star as counterbalanced object.
Many analysts will object it, saying that the existence of an object is possible only in conditions of balance. But you can’t call the burning of fire or liquid fuel as equilibrated process. Though, it is fairly possible to call it a transient process at the moment of energy allocation.
It is probable, that in stars there are long-term transients processes during which energy is allocated.
Whether the star in balance or not — this is a philosophical question which has to be considered regarding various existing conditions.
In this chapter, the disputable phrase «balance of a star», is being replaced with a more exact one, «star existence».
Unfortunately, we still can’t make the equations of «star existence» for the nuclear processes which are occurring in it, since we don’t have enough knowledge yet.
We shall try to make the equations of «star existence» for the thermodynamic processes occurring in a star.
The conclusion of any equations or formulas should begin with their logic conclusion.
First of all we should understand what forces operate in the star.
In a star, there are two kinds of forces that interest us, the forces aspiring to compress the star, and the forces, aspiring to expand it. There are forces that rotate the star, its matter and other forces, but they aren’t interesting for us in this work. What interests us, is how the rotation can influence forces of compression and expansion.
The forces, operating on the compression of a star:
— Gravitational force;
— Force from the radiation.
The force operating on the expansion of a star:
— The force from pressure of a hot gas-plasma mix;
— Centrifugal force created by the star’s rotation.
The forces caused by the influence of magnetic and other fields of the star, whose action is still unknown for us. At the present, we shall equate the value of these forces to zero, but in the future, their value will probably be established.
In general, the action of these forces can be expressed by the formula.
Fz = Fp+ Fω + FG + Fiz + FΦ + Fs = 0 (5.1)
Where Fz - the force, resulted of forces acting on a star;
Fp- the force created from the pressure action of the gas-plasma mix;
Fω- the force created by rotation of the star;
FG — the force of gravitation;
Fiz — the force created by the action of radiation;
FΦ- the force operating because of the influence of magnetic fields;
Fs ~ 0 — the force, operating under the influence of other fields and physical phenomena, which remains unknown for us at the present. For the simplification of the formula, because of the uncertainty of the forces operating currently inside of the gas-plasma mix, that are the reason of occurrence of processes of generation of thermonuclear synthesis and possibly of other nuclear explosions, we shall add and shall consider them in this addendum. The dynamic processes of nuclear explosions create the forces which directed to the break and destruction of the star. Since the events of nuclear explosions are short-termed, and we cannot predict them yet, the action of forces created from these explosions will not be considered in the given analysis.
1. The force formed by the gas-plasma mix pressure.
For an ideal gas in normal, terrestrial conditions, the equation of a state presented as the following:
pg — the gas pressure;
vg — the gas volume;
Tg — the gas temperature;
mg — the gas weight;
μ — thegas molar weight.
- Universal gas constant;
k — Boltzmann constant of, or a gas constant to one molecule;
NA — Avogadro number, the quantity of atoms in one pier:
The formula (5.2) can be written down as the following:
Where ν — number of gas moles.
If the gas is a mix of several gases:
Where pgi — pressure of i component of the gases mix;
νi — number of moles i component of a mix.
We have disassembled the equation of the condition for ideal gas. But, there are distinctions between the ideal gas and the real one. The formula (5.2) for real gas will have some differences and amendments.
In this case we’re interested in the substance that is in a gas-plasma state. Since it is probable, that in the stars atmosphere the substance is in the state of both gas and plasma.
In the moment of birth and death of a star, the gas partially or completely transfers into plasma and back. We shall try to logically deduce the formula that considers this state as well. Why does the gas transfers into a plasma state, and plasma passes in a gas state?