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1.2. «The analytical physics»

      Algorithms, principles and methods of maintaining an analytical research

 Studying the world around him, the human (researcher) meets the phenomena which, during exploring, it is difficult to explain by the view of classical physics. Because during there is an absence of technical equipment and progressive methods of research, it is impossible to carry out an objective research of these phenomena. The researchers offer variants of explanations for the «open» phenomena based on research material, the physical knowledge known during the given historical moment, and on the subjective opinions of scientists. These subjective opinions are called theories. In the scientific environment, the theories of eminent and titled scientists were accepted.

The complex mathematics was used for adjusting such theories to the eventual outcome. The collection of such science-fiction products refers to «the theoretical physics».

If the word «physicist» appears in the name, subconsciously, the theories in this collection considered as laws.

In the twentieth century, it became fashionable among scientists to state obscure hypotheses. And the more improbably (and sillier) these hypotheses are, the more quickly they become trustworthy. The more unclear the theory, the author is considered as cleverer and the more titles and premiums he receives. Certainly, there are also more complex physics, but very often many made up physical theories are being complicated by the researchers themselves. This work is one of first steps to revise and reform the laws of theoretical physics and astrophysics. It is a step to physics of the twenty first century, to physics of analysts.

During the development of mankind, the scientific research and the equipment for them had developed and improved as well.

The knowledge about the nature extended, research material increased and collected.

If in 1957 the first artificial satellite of the Earth was launched, in forty years, the space vehicle has left beyond the aisle of solar system.

During the long-term research of the physical phenomena, practical material that demands analytical processing has been collected. A revision of theoretical base is also necessary, since it has become outdated and mismatches last scientific knowledge.

Consequently, the process of investigating the physical phenomena that can not be study empirically, is needed a fundamental approach. This approach only possible in conducting analytical investigation, collected of proxy data. Every researcher chooses his path of researchthat often leads to mistakes.

Let’s try to develop a general way of conducting analytical investigation to obtain objective theoretical basis, with the ability to upgrade and maximize the possible exception of errors.

How to conduct analytical research so as not to repeat the mistakes of our predecessors?

  — First, to develop main principles of research, and to follow them strictly.

  — Second, to develop an algorithm and the general technique of research of physical phenomena, events, processes and objects.

  — Third, in each case of research, it is necessary to develop an individual technique of research.

  — Forth, it is necessary to develop a research process which is capable of being updated and excluding the occurrence and existence of «idols» in science.

The science which studying physical objects, the phenomena, processes and events using the method of analytical research, we shall name — «THE ANALYTICAL PHYSICS».

At a stage of forming «the analytical physics» will probably resist against the «theoretical physics» as, many theories from theoretical physics will be reconsidered from a position of «analytical physics». Later, that part of «theoretical physics» which, remains after its revision, will be a part of «analytical physics».

Let’s try to develop principles and technique of an analytical research which, in the future, will change, modernized and extend. For now, the analytical physics should consist from three parts:

  — The first part — the principles, algorithm and the technique of maintaining an analytical research;

  — The second part — examples of maintaining an analytical research;

  — The third part — the analysis of the mistakes made while developing theories and the reason why these mistakes were admitted. The third part can be included in the structure of first two parts.

In this chapter we shall consider principles and technique maintaining an analytical research. In all other chapters there’ll be analytical researches of the physical phenomena and events in astrophysics and the mistakes that were during the development of initial theories.                                                               

 - Principles of maintaining an analytical research physical objects, the phenomena of    

                                          events and processes.

       1. An analyst cannot have any authorities, except for «our CREATOR», Its laws and Its prophets!

       2. The Analyst is an inspector who, searches for the truth! If a phenomenon exists in nature, there is also a law of «Creator» by which, this phenomenon exists. We do not write the laws of the nature, we search for them.

       3. In the nature everything is simple!

       4. After physical events in the nature or in space, traces of these events should remain. The task of scientific analyst is to find and distinguish these traces or define by the traces what kind of physical event has occurred.

       5. There are only laws that were proved practically (classical physics, engineering sciences, etc.). The theoretical physics is a science fiction. The analyst should not make up the laws and use the made up theories and laws which weren’t proved by practice. He searches for laws of physics which can operate in this or that physical event and the phenomenon. The analyst can come out with assumptions, hypotheses and possible variants of chain of events, based on a conducted research, while warning, that it is possibly true, and possibly not.

  If the practice and the theory contradict each other, it is necessary to change the theory, instead of ignoring the practice.

      6. Analytical research should be conducted as objectively as possible!

With development of scientific and technical progress, the era of fantastic science theories covered by a heap of mathematical calculations, comes to an end. Research work should lean on facts, experience, real physical laws, logic and analysis.

         — Algorithm of maintaining an analytical research.

The process of the analysis consists of following parts:

       1. Defining the program and methods of maintaining the analysis which can change during the analysis.

       2. Gathering the information.

       3. Sorting and processing the collected information.

       4. Searching for laws of physics, nature, engineering and other sciences, that are capable to explain, the physical phenomena events or processes we’re researching. Prior the analysis it is necessary to open textbooks of physics and other sciences, and to read through the information on the theme we’re interested in.

       5. The Analysis of all collected material.

       6. Development of the theory, considering all the possible variants of succession of events.

       7. To sum up and to draw conclusions.

       8. To inspect the results of the analysis, having it compared to results of analysis lead by other method or way.

        9.  In case of negative results of examination it’s necessary to repeat the analysis and to search for mistakes.

     — Methods of maintaining an analytical research of the physical phenomena and events.

Methods of maintaining an analytical research should correspond to the principles and algorithm listed above. With the development of «analytical physics», the quantity of principles and methods will probably increase.

80% of research’s success consist from the following questions asked correctly and in time: «Why?», «What for?», «Where?», «Whence?»,…

 What methods of maintaining an analytical research can be?

Let’s consider some methods of maintaining an analytical research.

       1. The Method of analyzing events, the phenomena and the processes which result the events phenomena and processes we’re interested in, and the analysis of events, the phenomena and the processes occurring, after events the events, the phenomena and processes we’re interested in. We shall name this method of «elimination of breaking the stream of the information».

       2. The Method of «technology of process» — the technological analysis.

       3. The Method of «designing».

       4. The Method of «combination».

       5. The Internal method — the internal analysis.

       6. The External method — the external analysis.

       7. The Group method — the group analysis.

       8. The Time method — the time analysis.

       9. The Method (analysis) of compatibility of all the researches, or the method of «an indissoluble chain».

     10. The Spontaneous method — the spontaneous analysis.

     11. Method of increasing the degrees of freedom of the analytical research.

Let’s consider these methods more detailed.                                                        

       1. The Method of analyzing events, the phenomena and the processes which result the events phenomena and processes we’re interested in, and the analysis of events, the phenomena and the processes occurring, after events the events, the phenomena and processes we’re interested in. A method of «elimination of breaking the stream of the information». This analysis is necessary for understanding the dynamics of events, the phenomena and processes. If we consider an event, the phenomenon or process we’re interested in as separated, not connected in time and space with the events, the phenomena and processes, that occurred before and after them, in many cases we’ll probably make subjective mistakes in the analysis of events, the phenomena or processes we’re interested in. Such mistakes are characteristic for the theoretical physics and astrophysics. The given method is effective to use in cases when the research of an object, events, the phenomena and process by the information collected, is inconvenient or impossible. In such cases the events, the phenomena and the processes occurring before and after the events, models of events, the phenomena and processes we’re interested in. Or to search for similar chains of events, the phenomena and processes, in the world surrounding us, the material found is being analyzed, prototypes or models of events, the phenomena and processes we’re interested in, are defined and analyzed in the «chains» found and their is made. An example of such analysis is the analysis of «a black hole», conducted in the given work. Since the research of «a black hole» is a complex process, and probably impossible. Since the actions of vacuum imperceptibly because of absence of the basic object of an attraction and to it’s possible to define the presence of vacuum only by indirect factors. In this case, a method of «elimination of break of a stream of the information» has been applied successfully. At the analysis of «a black hole», events that took place before and after occurrence of «a black hole» have been analyzed. Similar physical phenomena are found in conditions of the Earth and have been analyzed and compared to the phenomena, events and the processes which take place prior the occurrence of «a black hole». This process of analytical research has explored for us the physics of «a black hole», and has enabled to make forecasts which, during research were proved to be true.

       2. The Method of «technology of process» — the technological analysis. The given method has been successfully applied in «the power analysis» and in the analysis of «a solar wind». In the given method, the main criterion is the sequence of events occurring during, or in process of consecutive events. Let’s say, we’re investigating a process in space, in the environment, or inside of an object. Direct research is not possible, since the process is hidden from us. In the given process, the element «A» turns into element «D». We have a task – using the modern knowledge we have to predict the possible technological chains of transformations of an element «A» in an element «D», and based on these chains, to define the events and the processes occurring inside of the investigated phenomena, processes, or objects, and possibly, the structures of these objects. The existence of intermediate elements, «B» and «C», simplifies the forecasting of «technological chain» transformations of an element «A» into element «D». In a star, there is a process of transformation of hydrogen into heavier elements of the periodic table. Predicting possible variants of the given process of transformation, it is possible to define events and the processes which are occurring inside of a star, and maybe its structure, as nuclear reactor for synthesis of kernels.

       3. The Method of «designing». The given method considers the investigated object as an engineering design created for generation and existence of events, the phenomena, or processes occurring in the given object. The analyst should theoretically design the investigated object, as an engineering construction. According to this method, the structure of a star, is considered and predicted, as an engineering design, a nuclear reactor for the synthesis of hydrogen in heavier elements of a periodic table. In the given method an opposite process of the analysis is also possible. On a known design of object, the possible processes, phenomena and events occurring in it are predicted. This method has been used at the analysis of a structure of a star. Return process of the analysis of the given method is applied at the analysis of processes inside of a star, and at the analysis of occurrence and existence of «dark spots» on the Sun surface.                       

       4. The Method of «combination». If a research of a latent, internal structure of an object is necessary, and if the elements from which it consisted or its components are known, it is possible to conduct an analytical research by combing these elements or components, with the purpose to receive the most probable variants of the internal design of the object, considering the laws of physics.

       5. The Internal method — the analysis of the physical object, the phenomenon, process, event themselves. According to this method, an analysis of internal peculiarities, processes, structures, of the objects, events, the phenomena we’re interested in is being done. Search of laws is being done. Previous theories are not considered, in order to exclude their influence on the course and conclusions of the analysis. The internal analysis includes:

 - Gathering the information on objects, events, the phenomena we’re interested in (practical researches, experiences, laws).

 - Gathering the practical information, on the similar phenomena existing in nature

 - Preliminary analysis where we consider the practical information, about the phenomena which, are similar to the phenomena investigated by. Probably, there are phenomena, experiments and experiences which model the process we’re interested in.

 - Construction of the theoretical scheme and model of the process based on the laws of classical (not theoretical) physicists. — Creating physical and mathematical model, and if it is possible – also a real model.

       6. The External method. According to this method, the analysis of external peculiarities of processes, distinctions and similarities in a structure of the groups, or the phenomena in objects we’re interested is bring done. The purpose of this method is the search for laws in structure, behavior, evolution of groups of objects we’re interested in, phenomena, processes, distinction of their parameters. The external analysis considers the phenomenon we’re interested in not as separate, but as a consecutive part in a chain of physical events.

Each event leaves traces in nature, in the form of physical objects, the phenomena, processes. The physicist — an analyst should find and distinguish the traces left by the physical phenomena. And theoretically (analytically) to restore the chain of events of processes we’re interested in.                                                                                                                                  

       7. The Group method. This way is necessary for the analysis of groups, similar physical objects, the phenomena, events, for defining what’s common laws in a structure, behavior or in development in these groups are. This method can be applied backwards, based on the general laws, structure, behavior or development, it is possible to define in which group included the objects, the phenomena, events we’re interested in. There are cases, when the group analysis (method) is the external analysis (method) simultaneously.

       8. The Time method. A method of analyzing events and processes in dynamics. That means, the analysis of change in the events and processes in time that were made. This method should be applied inside of all other methods, but an independent application is possible as well. The time analysis is not separate way of analysis. The time analysis should be present at all kinds of the analysis, tracing succession of events, the phenomena and change in structure of compound of the studied objects.

       9. The Method of compatibility of all researches, or a method of «an indissoluble chain». This method is both verifying, and connecting all the researches lead by other methods, in united «circuit» that’s all compatible with each other. That means that all the researches that were lead by all the other methods listed are being checked for compatibility with each other and integrity of all researches. That means, that results and the conclusions received at maintaining one research should prove to be true in other researches and «blend» in the general picture of events. The final analysis – this is the analysis of an event, from the internal and external point of view. In this analysis an automatic attachment of internal and external components should take place. In case of lack of attachment, there should be a revision of all the analysis.

     10. The Spontaneous (casual) method. The method can be applied in any cases. If the researcher cannot define a method or the program, or cannot define both a method and the program, researches. In these cases, an application of «a spontaneous method», can give a positive result. An example of «a spontaneous method» researches is presented lower by the research of the star «Sun», which has begun with «the power analysis» and has led to application of all methods listed by us. «The power analysis» has been lead casually and revealed contradictions between the nuclear physics and physics of the Sun operating today. These contradictions also led to the necessity of maintaining this analytical research. The spontaneous method can be and any other method simultaneously. So, «the power analysis» is a method of «technology of process», but it has been lead spontaneously (casually).

And so, «the Analytical physics», part (chapter) — «Analytical astrophysics».    

      11. The method of increasing of degrees of freedom in conducting of analytical studies.

If we agree with the statement that the theoretical part of astrophysics is wrong, so we get a few degrees of freedom in conducting analytical studies.

Why only some degrees of freedom, but not complete freedom?

Research and analysis cannot be completely free. Their freedom is limited to research materials, scientific data, facts, laws of physics. Complete freedom can only be fiction and fantasy.  In modern physics, these fictions and fantasy are collected in theoretical physics, which includes modern astrophysics. Rejection of old theories makes it possible to be more freely and independently seeking solutions to problems facing the researcher.