4.3.The analysis of the factual sheet and forecasting a design of a star, as thermonuclear reactor
The short analysis lead by us in 9 paragraphs shows a divergence between the fact sheet and theories of Eddington and Parker about the physics, star structure and the nature of «a solar wind». From this analysis it is possible to draw the following conclusions:
– The theories operating today about the structure, physicists of stars and the nature of «a solar wind» have become outdated.
– Synthesis of kernels of atoms occurs inside of a star. The centers of thermonuclear synthesis rise in the top layers of an atmosphere of a star, in the form of high-energy plasma forming «an active zone». The centers of thermonuclear synthesis are formed as a result of nuclear explosions inside of a star. Thermonuclear synthesis with the allocation of a most part of the energy doesn’t takes place inside of the kernel, but in the top layers of the atmosphere: the photosphere, the chromosphere – we shall name this area – the «an active zone». The structure of an active zone is probably includes the areas adjoining to the photosphere and chromosphere: the top layers of the convection zone and the bottom layers of the crown.
Only at such design, the existence of each fact listed above, while having logical explanation.
1. The non-stationary speed of particles in «a solar wind» is explained by the different impulses received by these particles in different reactions of synthesis at different allocation of energy in these reactions.
The Magnetic fields of a star render influences on speeds of the particles in «a solar wind», but aren’t as much significant, as it was considered earlier.
2. At the synthesis, in «an active zone» (photospheres, chromosphere), different quantity of energy is allocated in the different reactions of synthesis, hence, the particles in «a solar wind», will be different not only by speed, but also by different temperature.
3. The speeds of particles depend, mostly, on the energy allocated in the reactions of the synthesis where these particles participated. So, at the synthesis from two kernels 4He of hydrogen 2H=D, D+D=4He, the highest amount of energy is allocated, hence, in the structure of fast «a solar wind» there should be kernels 4He, this fact corresponds to the validity.
4. The high-energy radiation of neutrons, x-ray and γ – beams can be explained by the existence of nuclear reactions in the top layers of the Sun, as the source of these beams. If the synthesis would take place in a kernel of a star, then the radiations assorted by us would have smaller energy and many times smaller density.
5. In pictures of γ -beams and x -rays, in the areas of strong and dense radiation it is possible that a more intensive synthesis of kernels, which radiates γ -beams and x -rays.
The hot gas-plasma mix, under the action of high pressure and temperatures, tries to extend and leave the borders of a star. «The active zone» constructed from the photosphere and chromosphere impedes this expansion. The centers of thermonuclear synthesis gather in the volume of «an active zone» and form the environment of a star. The radiation of the active zone constrains the expansion of gas-plasma mix and keeps it in the volume of the star. From the external party, the radiation from «the active zone» is «the solar wind».
High speed and more intensive radiation are better in restraining the gas-plasma mix from breaking through to the surface («the active zone») stars.
In case of decrease in the intensity and the capacity of energy allocation during the process of synthesis, the intensity, capacity and the speed of radiation in «the solar wind» decreases as well. Hence, the impulse restraining the gas-plasma mix from expansion, and the thickness of «the active zone» should decrease as well. At decrease thickness of «the active zone» and the impulse of radiation received during the process of synthesis, the probability of penetration and break of particles of the gas-plasma mix through volume of «an active zone» and into the space increases. Probably, this can also explain the existence of coronary holes and «dark» spots on the surface of a star. Probably, in areas where the coronary holes are observed, nuclear reactions are taking place, during which γ -beams and x-ray are allocated less.
6. A chemical compound of «a solar wind».
Difference of chemical compounds of the Sun and «solar wind», can be explained by the fact that the energy is being allocated only during the synthesis of kernels easier than Zn. With the increase in the weight of a kernel, the energy allocated at its synthesis decreases, while the weight increases. Hence, the impulse received by a kernel, at the process of synthesis, decreases. The speed of a kernel decreases also. It occurs for two reasons: the decrease in allocated energy and increase in the weight of a kernel. For overcoming the gravitation of a star, the kernel should have high speed. After Zn the synthesis of kernels goes at the minimal allocation of energy or at its absorption. Hence, the kernels received as a result of such synthesis, cannot have an impulse, since allocation of energy does not occur. If among such come across kernels, which allocate energy at the moment of synthesis, its values aren’t high, and their speed is not enough for being a part of «a solar wind».
7. According to the theory offered by us, the heating of a star occurs not from the center to the periphery, but from the top layers of an atmosphere to the center, and inside of a gas-plasma mix in the centers of thermonuclear synthesis.
8. Since the neutrino is the indicator of kernels synthesis of hydrogen and helium, by analyzing the neutrinos radiations of a star, it is possible to define the places of synthesis of hydrogen and helium. The period of change of neutrino radiation at the Sun is 27 days, which coincides with the period of rotation of external layers of the Sun atmosphere. And the arrangement of area of the maximal radiation neutrino as coincides with external layers of an atmosphere of the Sun. Hence, most of the neutrino is born not in the kernel, but in the top layers of the Sun. This fact implies that most of the synthesis of kernels of hydrogen and helium occurs in the top layers of the Sun. Since during the process of synthesis of hydrogen and helium the maximum quantity of energy is allocated, here (in the top layers of an atmosphere) the most of the energy of the star is also allocated.
(55) Figure №R-4.4
The analysis of the neutrino radiation map, figure №R-4.4, states that the maximal density of the neutrino radiation coincides with the arrangement of the top layers of the star atmosphere, and the periodicity of change of this radiation – 27 days, with the period of rotation of the same top layers of an atmosphere. It is visible from the figure that the synthesis of easy kernels with neutrino allocation occurs, probably on the surface of the star kernel, and in the middle of the atmosphere. Probably, in the average part there is a meeting of dynamic waves from the bottom layers of «the active zone» and wave from the star kernel, part of making dynamic waves going from a kernel are probably the reflected dynamic waves. In a place of a meeting of these waves, thermonuclear synthesis occurs probably, we see it on the map.
On the map the emission of neutrinos in Fig. № R-4.4, it is possible to see the area of high allocation of neutrinos at the surface or near the surface around the core of the Sun. There are three possible events occurring in this area:
– A division and disintegration, and other transuranic kernels occur on the surface of the core of the Sun
– There is a synthesis of light kernels at the core surface of the Sun, due to the presence of the reflected wave from the surface of the dynamic core of the star.
– A mixed option, there is a division and disintegration of heavy kernels on the surface, while the surface of the core of the Sun there is a synthesis of light kernels.
For more serious analysis of the thermonuclear synthesis process inside the Sun, it is necessary to investigate the dynamics of change in neutrinos’ radiations during the time.
9. «Dark spots».
The nature and physics of «dark spots» is unexpectedly very simple. If we shall consider the device of the Sun, according to our theory we shall see that «the dark spots» play a role of safety valves in the thermal boiler named the Sun.