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4.2. Modern theories about «a solar wind» and about a star structure

One of the most interesting natural phenomena – is the «a solar wind» (or a star wind). Modern researchers lead huge work on gathering the information about it. But unfortunately, the base theories about the Sun structure, written almost hundred years ago, like other theories in modern astrophysics, have become outdated, and the collected information remains without application. Actually, as the analysis of blood of the human gives the information on its health, the analysis of parameters of «a solar wind» can give us huge information about a structure and about its state.

Why until now there is no such analysis?

   First, it is necessary to collect a huge quantity of information.
   Second, a group of analysts into which should include experts on the nuclear physics, physicist of plasma, thermo physics and some other is necessary.
   Third, the theory about star and the Sun structure has become outdated and mismatches the validity, means, it is erroneous. Hence, the analysis of all the data collected, based on the erroneous theory, will be erroneous.
   Fourth, because of the existing mistake in the theory about the Sun structure, researchers do cannot understand the value of data available to them about a star and «a solar wind», and the actual information this data carries.                   
Let’s try to correct almost hundred years old mistake in the theory of the Sun structure.

Sun structure

According to still considered as modern theory, the Sun is consisted of a kernel where under the weight of the top layers there is a thermonuclear synthesis of kernels of hydrogen in kernels of helium.
At the process of thermonuclear synthesis, in a kernel of the Sun, energy is allocated. This energy, having passed radiant and convection zones, is transferred into an atmosphere. In the top layers of an atmosphere of a star, under the action of variable magnetic field, particle, kernel of atoms, ions and electrons are being thrown out in a space. The speed of the thrown out particles is high and different. 

35-1-52-En str 35-1

(52) Figure № R-4.1

Being based on such theory, the value of the parameters of «a solar wind», are not valuable for reception of additional knowledge.
Luckily for us, the Sun, as well as the whole Universe, wasn’t created by the authors of these theories, but by much higher mind on many, therefore, we suggest to consider other theory of stars structure on an example of the Sun.
And for now, there are many questions regarding the operating theory, which put its correctness under doubt.
  1. Since the heating of external layers of a star goes from the center, the parameters of these external layers should be almost stationary and unified or varying smoothly. The speed of particles in «a solar wind» should be as stationary or to vary in a small range.
But the parameters on the Sun surface change not permanently, speeds of particles are different and the range of these speeds is big.
  2. If the heating of a star goes from the center, the temperature of all particles in «a solar wind», should be identical.
Actually – the temperature of particles is different.             
  3. If the speed of a particle depends on the influence of a magnetic field, then its speed in «a solar wind» would depend on a charge of the particle. With the increase in the charge, the speed of a particle should increase. Considering a variable magnetic field, acceleration of the charged particles should increase. The acceleration of positively charged particles and the delay of electronic gas. Acceleration of electronic gas and delay of positive particles.
Actually – the maximal speeds particles are with small charges, electrons, kernels of hydrogen and helium.
  4. Neutrons do not obey to the activity of magnetic fields.
If neutrons are born in the center of the Sun, the probabilities of reaching the external layers of the star, while keeping their high energy – are not exist.
Actually, the Sun radiates neutrons of great energies and plenty of them all over the surface. The time of a neutron life is about 15 minutes, which makes the radiation from a surface of a star, by a neutron born in its center impossible.

 By the materials   <http: // www.astronet.ru/> (astronet.ru)
(53)   Figure №R-4.2

  5. X-ray radiation and γ – radiation of the Sun.

The sun in X-rays (space laboratory «Skylab»).
By the materials <http: // www.astronet.ru/>(astronet.ru)
(54) Figure № R-4.3

Similarly, radiation of neutrons, x-ray and γ – beams, cannot keep the high energy, having passed through all thickness of the Sun.   
Maps and photos of a star made in x-ray and γ – beams, show areas of more intensive and less intensive radiation.
  6. The chemical compound of «a solar wind» does not coincide with a chemical compound of the Sun.
 In the chemical compound of the Sun all the elements of the periodic system appear, including uranium. The chemical compound of «a solar wind» includes elements from hydrogen up to nickel and zinc.
  7. One of the most unclear questions for researchers is how the layers located around the kernel of a star, having lower temperature, manage to heat up the hotter layers of the photosphere, chromosphere and the crown.
8. Neutrino is being born during the synthesis of kernels of hydrogen and helium. If the synthesis of hydrogen and helium occurs in a kernel of the Sun, the changes in the neutrino stream should depend on the changes occurring in a kernel or to a kernel of the Sun. Actually, the changes in a neutrino stream, corresponds to the changes of processes in layers of the atmosphere of the Sun.
  9. By the Eddington theory, according to whom the energy is allocated in the kernel of a star, the nature of dark spots is not clear, or speaking more precisely, is not explainable.