1.1. Modern astrophysics
What does the modern astrophysics represent, today?
Today, a lot of material was collected in astrophysics research. The achievements of space researchers are astonishing, the existence of neutrino’s telescopes and of internal structure and seismology, that are capable to glance into the bowels of the Sun, today it seems like science fiction. The high speed of technical development, promotes fast increase in the stream of scientifically received research information. Unfortunately, comparing to the research and technical breakthrough, the theoretical base of astrophysics is being dragged behind for almost a hundred years, and represents a heap of the separate, inconsistent theories which aren’t connected with each other.
The theories: «Gas balance of a star», «Degenerate gas», «Structures of a star», «the Solar wind», «the Neutron star», «the Black hole» and others, represent the base of modern astrophysics.
The common fault of this «base» is that all of these theories have become outdated. They exist by themselves, and don’t fit in the general chain of the natural events occurring in space. The majority of these theories contradict each other and the laws of physics. To say the least of it, these theories are far even from science fiction. They are based on outdated physical concepts that dominated at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Why these mistakes have been made, taking into account that these theories were developed by the clever and educated people?
First, mistakes were made initially, that is the first scientific papers. Errors in subsequent works taken away theory further from the truth.
The second, the lack of the required number of objective scientific research information. Scientific and technical equipment for space exploration was primitive and made it impossible to get a complete and objective research information.
Thirdly, there was no rocket science.The real physics of stars is based on the nuclear physics. That means that everything that occurs in a star and to a star has to be considered through the laws of nuclear physics. But in the beginning of the past century, the nuclear physics did not exist yet. From the forties of the twentieth century, all scientific works on nuclear physicist have been classified, so the majority of the researchers did not know about them. This means that the astrophysics has been developed during past century without the participation of nuclear physics, the theories developed were initially erroneous.
Fourth, the researchers of space are astronomers and theorists, instead of physicists, nuclear engineers, they are not analysts. That explains the low quality of the theoretical development.
Fifth, while developing the theory about stars and the Sun, a star considered as a physical phenomenon, instead of as an engineering construction, a nuclear reactor.
In the given analytical work, a new approach to research of a star is taking place. The star considered as an engineering construction — a nuclear reactor which develops thermal and nuclear energy. Each component of a star is considered as a separate mechanism which is maintaining an its working functions, in this engineering device.
Let’s describe the mistakes of some theories in astrophysics.
Theory of Eddington «Gas balance of a star»
This theory is about hundred years old; it was developed at the beginning of nuclear physics, when its main laws were still unknown to mankind. It has become outdated and hasn’t changed during the time.
Eddington’s words: «There is nothing simpler than a stars», seem naive on the background of the received research data.
The basic flaw of Eddington’s theory is the fact that it was based on the outdated concepts of the nineteenth and the beginnings of the twentieth century.
The theory «Degenerate gas»
Related to other theories, the theory of «Degenerate gas» is illogical, and contradicts the laws of physics.
The star in the end of a life first extends, and then suddenly it’s sharply compressed to the sizes of critical radius. Why? Which forces influence it?
If it happens under the action of gravitation, why doesn’t not occur in the beginning of life? When the weight of a star is maximal and the resistance to compression of coulombs forces at kernels of hydrogen is minimal. Considering the theories about formation of stars, «Gravitational compression», «Gas balance of a star», the greatest compression of a star, should occur in the beginning of a life of a star, having the maximal weight, and the maximal gravitational force which, compresses a star. But illogically this compression occurs in the end of life when the weight of a star and its gravitation are minimal.
Astrophysicists always had a dispute, whether synthesis of hydrogen, helium and heavier kernels of atoms in stars is possible and whether the conditions are sufficient for this. And suddenly, a theory occurs about degenerate gas, which asserts that a star kernel is reaching such high density, that in it penetration even of electron is impossible.
Such density of a matter is possible only in two cases: when a kernel of a star has turned to one huge nucleon with a weight equal of a star, or in one huge nuclear kernel with nuclear weight equal to weight of a star. In both cases, it is improbable, if not ridiculous.
The theory of a star structure
At the present this theory mismatches the factual results of research of the Sun, and requires revision.
The theory of solar wind of E. Parker
One of the most ingenious theories in astrophysics, but, unfortunately, it is erroneous, since it’s based on the erroneous theory about a structure of the Sun and a star. In the chapter «the Solar wind» its weaknesses will be discussed.
Theories about a dark matter, a neutron star, a black hole
Existence of a dark (grey) matter is not proved, because it does not exist. It is not found. If it existed, it would be distributed all over the Universe. However, it wasn’t found in aisle of solar system. Hence, the dark matter exists only in theories, made for scientists to explain the unclear phenomena in space.
Theories about dark matter, neutron star, and black hole give more questions, than answers.
What is a star which consists of one neutron? And whether its existence is possible? Are there proofs for its existence?
In nature, there are no particles and kernels of the atoms consisted only of protons or neutrons. All attempts to receive such particles consisting of two protons or two neutrons, have not given the necessary results. And suddenly… there is a whole star consisted only of neutrons. Is that any less than ridiculous?
The neutron star is a former star, whose radioactive radiation reaches to us.
First, it’s probably a space body, that radiates not only neutrons, but also other radiations and particles which, have a charge. These particles can change the trajectory under action of different fields on the way, modifying both the star, and other space bodies, to change the charge and to break up, while occurring huge distances.
Secondary, most possibly, huge weight of heavy kernels has accumulated in this object. The division of these kernels by neutrons has led to nuclear explosion, «collapse». The remains of the star continue to radiate neutrons and other radioactive radiations. Only X-rays, gamma radiation and electromagnetic radiation are able to overcome the huge distance. Is it possible to define by radioactive radiation a chemical compound of the space object which is being for billions of kilometers and consisting only from neutrons… it is ridiculous!!!
Modern theories about «black holes» contradict the fundamental law of physics — the law of «conservation of energy and mass».
The star, with weight «M», after the explosion («collapse»), should lose a part of the weight «m» (if not all of it), after the collapse there supposed to be weight M1.
M1=M — m.
According to modern theories about «black holes» and «neutron stars», the weight in these space objects, doesn’t decrease after a collapse of stars, but increases, which is absurd by the law of conservation of energy and mass. This is ridiculous as well!!!
In the nearest future, this theory will laughed at, like we’re laughing now at the theory, which claims that the Earth is flat and lies on three whales.
So, what is it, the modern astrophysics?
The modern astrophysics is a collection of science-fiction theories contradicting each other and the laws of fundamental physics.
The theoretical physics describes the phenomena which are impossible to study by practical way, with direct contact with the object of studying. These are some sections of nuclear, nuclear physics and almost all astrophysics. For studying nuclear and nuclear physics, it is necessary to create the expensive devices, which are capable to glance into an atom, its kernel and particles. For studying objects of astrophysics, it’s necessary to have devices, that capable of glancing into these objects through huge distances. At the given stage of development of mankind, the technical-scientific base is lagging behind the needs of science. This is observed during all of human history.
Hence, it prompts the role of indirect data, which can give us, after analytical processing, the objective vision of past and enduring physical processes, as well as forecasting for their future.
Let’s say, we studied several galaxies, and created their detailed map. And having instant means of transportation we have appeared in the given place. What shall we see?
While we collected the information on these objects, or to be exact, while this information reached to the Earth, it is already obsolete. The duration of delay of the information will be huge and different for each object, and depend on the distance between the object and the Earth, since the speed of light is constant value. As a result, having arrived to the settlement point, we might not find this star system on the given spot. And when we shall find it, it will occur to us that the maps we made had already become outdated and doesn’t matching the reality. In order to reduce our mistakes as possible, it is necessary to predict the changes of objects we’re interested in. But not only the question about the future of Universe and its objects, is important, but the question «that used to be?», and how did all this developed? While searching for answers to these questions, the delay of the information plays a favorable role because, when we receive the information from similar space objects from different parts of the Universe, we’re able observe simultaneously the development of space objects (stars, galaxies) during the different periods of time.
And therefore we have some questions in front of us:
1. What is the Star?
2. What used to be with the Universe and its objects?
3. How the development of the Universe and its objects built up to the modern level?
4. What happens now?
5. What might happen in the future?
But, there is more significant question, the sixth one.
6. Is it possible to receive answers to the questions above based on the available information?
Are the knowledge and information we collected are enough for the answer?
Is it possible to find answers to these questions?
Without the positive answer to the sixth question, it’s not necessary even to consider first five.
In order to answer the sixth question, it is necessary to lead a lab and analytical work, based on the materials of astronomy and astrophysics, to analyze the gathered knowledge, to compare it with similar objects, phenomena, events, as they’re happens in the nature.
A man creature mercenary, and all his activities directed at meeting the needs and desires. Very often, for various reasons, people trying to hide or confuse the traces of their activities. Nature has no greed and no purpose — to hide something. The man had not yet learned to read its signs. At the present stage of science, including astrophysics, moving from observation and study of phenomena in nature to the analytical study. Modern research is transformed from a laboratory to analyst, armed with computer, the Internet and not just with telescope.
The main drawback of theoretical physics and still valid astrophysicsis the lack of a fundamental developed system of analytical investigation of phenomena, events, processes and objects based on indirect evidence.
In this research work we developed a system of analytical investigation of phenomena, events, processes and objects based on indirect data, that in the future will lead to scientific breakthroughs in physics.