Welcome To New Analytical AstrophysicsArticles | Forum | Author

                  2.7. «Packing» and «unpacking» of a matter

 For understanding some of the physical processes which are occurring in the nature and in a gas-plasma mix, it is necessary for us to simplify some concepts.

The matter exists in the form of: particles, kernels of atoms, atoms, molecules, plasma, gas, liquid, firm body, and so on.

Let’s assume, that all these particles, kernels, atoms, molecules and so on, are environments in which, the matter is packed. The matter is packed into the smallest particles. The smallest particles are packed into larger ones — in electrons, positrons and others. Electrons and positrons are packed into protons and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are packed into kernels. Kernels and electrons are packed into atom, atoms are packed into molecules. Molecules in gas, in a liquid, or a firm body. The state of substance in the certain conditions, Is a packing of a matter as well. The changes of conditions in a substance (such as temperature, pressure), influences the «packing» of a matter. From such point of view we shall consider the process of transition of gas in plasma and back. At the transition of gas in plasma there is an unpacking of a matter, at return transition from plasma in gas, a liquid and a firm body, there is a packing of a matter. At the increase in temperature of gas, a molecule receive an energy and become more mobile, borrow greater volume, and by restriction of volume the pressure increases. Further, with the growth of temperature the molecular communications are falling, and the gas passes into an atomic state, the speed of the atoms grows, the pressure or the volume of the gas grows. If the temperature continues to grow, the communications of a kernel and electrons in electronic environments are falling, the gas passes into a state of plasma where there are ions of atoms and electronic gas. Electrons – are the particles which have high speeds at their small weight and volume. Due to the high energy of particles, electronic gas and all of the plasma is capable to borrow huge volumes and to supersede them from particles with smaller energy or at a restriction of the volume to increase pressure considerably. At the loss of atoms and ions of all electrons in plasma there are free kernels. Such transition of gas into plasma increases the volume and the pressure of a gas-plasma mix.

If the molecule consisted of two atoms of hydrogen or helium, «supervises» the volume in gas as one particle, having not high speed in, the plasma from this molecule of hydrogen are allocated by 4-6 times more particles (and at 6-12 times more from helium). The speeds of these particles is higher than the speed of molecules in gas, they are capable «to supervise» volume much more, than one molecule. The given process of transition of gas into plasma occurs, in a young star, at its birth, and is possible during all life of a star. This means that, a variant when thermonuclear synthesis begins not in the center of a star, but from the external parties, is possible. Such process compresses a gas-plasma mix of a star and heats it up from the external parties. The substance, being inside of a star is in more packed state, than the plasma. The radiation from a surface of a star reduces its weight and the pressure inside decreases, but due to the heating gas in the star there is a partial unpacking in plasma that supports thermonuclear synthesis. There is a submission of a «nuclear fuel» in the volume of the «an active zone» or «the chamber of combustion». But unlike the reactors and other engines created by the human, «the active zone or the chamber of combustion» for hydrogen and helium is not in a nutria of installation, but outside. Such scheme allows easily to utilize the «slags» — heavy kernels, which in the participation in further synthesis, does not lead to allocation of energy. The increase in weight of «slags» leads to an absorption of allocated energy. These «slags» fall to the center of a star by gravity, accumulating in a kernel, supersede the volume of a gas-plasma mix from the center to the periphery, participating in the submission of fuel to the zones of thermonuclear synthesis. The «Slags» concentrated in a kernel absorb the allocated energy directing to the center of a star. This absorbed energy goes on packing matter in the kernel of the star. In large stars the absorption of energy and the packing of a matter in the kernel, goes for the future reproduction of the star, through «a black hole».

Let’s disassemble the process of transition of the gas-plasma mix in gas, in the end of a life when the star passes into the «the red giant» state. Thermonuclear synthesis fades, the force of compression from radiation decreases and there are less forces directed on the expansion of a gas-plasma mix. The gas-plasma mix has the minimal weight and thickness as its greater part has been allocated as radiation and is compressed in the kernel — «the white dwarf». Hence, on the outside the gas-plasma mix lost weight, and from the central part of a star was superseded by the growing weight of «the white dwarf» (kernels). The thickness of a gas-plasma mix is minimal, is favorable for more even distribution of the temperature. Since there’s not enough force from the radiation, for the deduction of a gas-plasma mix from expansion, — the mix extends. The compression pressure decreases, and the volume increases, since the temperature is high, and the pressure has decreased, part of the liquid and firm substance in a kernel of a star passes in a gaseous and plasma state, increasing the volume and the weight of a gas-plasma mix. The star passes into «the red giant» state. The hot gas-plasma mix extends and borrows huge volume around the former star. During a life, the star is in a hemisphere created by own radiation, where the density of the substance is low and the resistance to expansion of the mix is practically not present. Since the mix has heat, it radiates light in red and infra-red ranges. Because of this radiation of light, the «white dwarf», being the center of «the red giant» is invisible. Further, there is a process of cooling down this gas-plasma mix at which the plasma passes into a gas state. There is «packing» — compression of a matter due to the cooling and the decrease in particles energy. The kernels of atoms, ions and electrons lose energy and speed, which allow the kernels and ions to grasp free electrons. The electronic gas borrowing the most of the volume, is absorbed, quickly reduces the volume of a gas-plasma mix. Simultaneously there is a decrease in the volume of the mix due to cooling. It leads to a very fast reduction of volume of the mix. The fast reduction of volume of the mix leads to occurrence of vacuum concerning low pressure of interstellar gas. The vacuum formed around the «star» soaks up the dust and the gas of outer space. If the parameters of a former star and the space surrounding it correspond the necessary for a renewal of the synthesis by value dynamic process of absorbing gas from space passes «the white dwarf» in process of compression of an atmosphere, with the subsequent renewal of thermonuclear synthesis of kernels in an atmosphere of «the white dwarf». This process will «light up» the star repeatedly. And if on affinity there is a second star at conformity to necessary characteristics of both stars, the first, dying, star sucks in a gas-plasma mix from the second, still a star that still hot, with a stream of gas and dust of the space surrounding them. In the crown of the second star a «hole» appears, that the part of the substance is soaked up is formed, and through this hole the gas-plasma mix tries to extend, and is grasped by a gas stream. The fact of a secondary ignition of a star confirms a hypothesis that synthesis with allocation of energy goes not in the kernel, but in the top layers of an atmosphere. If we’d consider the processes in nature from the point of view of packing matter, all processes are either packing, or unpacking of matter, with allocation or absorption of energy. Nuclear reactions are «packing» or «unpacking» of matter, in small volumes, but with big power consumption. Chemical processes are packing in larger volumes — molecules with power lower consumption, than at nuclear reactions. The transition between states of substance is larger packing of a matter, which power consumption is lower than at nuclear and chemical processes.

  Probably, there is a dependence between the power consumption of these processes and the sizes of «packing». The less the packing is, the higher its power consumption. And maybe not.