Article B-1: Which discoveries were made in this research work?

– The structure of the star is completely revised.

One hundred years ago, as today, the star, naively, is presented as an object, in the core of which happening thermonuclear synthesis of hydrogen to helium under the influence of gravity. If this already old scheme would be valid, then by the force of gravity of the planets around many gathered would have the gas and dust from space, would be warmed the planet and turned it into a star. But such incidents we do not know. On the contrary, in Solar system exist planets, mass of which, few smaller than the mass of small stars, but the temperature of these planets is not only does not increase, but on the contrary is one of the lowest among the planets of the solar system. Objects that are considered protostars are more similar to accretion disks than the protostar. If the stars were born through the protostar, the mass and dimensions of all the stars would be the same.

– We have found that the modern scheme of the stars cannot act as a nuclear reactor.

After analyzing processes, occurring in the star and the collected research material, we have predicted schema of the structure of the star as the current nuclear reactor. This scheme is very simple and reminds the scheme of nuclear reactors and heating boilers. The main difference is that, that instead of cylindrical shape reactor, in the star used spherical shape.

Star as a nuclear reactor and heat boiler has a volume surrounded by a shell. In the case of  star shell is not rigid and is composed of plasma. If the amount of heat boiler there is a chemical burning of the fuel, followed by removal of combustion products, in nuclear reactors, spent fuel remains inside the reactor. The same thing we see in the star. The spent fuel, by gravity, is concentrated in the center of the star, forming the core of the star – white dwarf. Under the influence of force of gravity is the process of cleaning light fuels from heavy toxins, collection and storage of these toxins in the center of the star, at its core (white dwarf). 

Hull of stars, the chromosphere and the photosphere, represent high-energy plasma, the formed as a result of thermonuclear fusion in the volume of stars, and climb to the upper layers of the atmosphere. Rising to the upper atmosphere, high-energy plasma, collects, forming a huge layer of a sphere around of stars and around the gas-plasma mixture. This hull is not hard. The absence hardness in shell of the star protects it from destruction, in the allocation of energy in the star above the critical parameters. That is, in the allocation of energy in the star above the critical parameters of non-rigid hull serves as a safety valves, relieving the excess released energy through the dark spots on the surface of the star (the Sun) in the space.

 In the construction the star, we see a genius solution our Creator, combine the stellar envelope and the protection star systems from destruction in a single design.

And so, the star consists of:

Nucleus (white dwarf) located in the center of the star. This is where collected and stored the spent fuel – toxins.

– The gas-plasma mixture placed around the core of the star.

– No hard shell (active zone) consisting of a high-energy plasma (chromosphere, the photosphere) and the located around amount of stars and around the gas-plasma mixture. In this shell, there is a synthesis of the nuclei.

– The Crown. The crown is formed of particles, nuclei, and other electromagnetic radiation. In the crown taking place nuclear decomposition reactions of non stable nuclei, and possibly some others. During these nuclear reactions happen associated radiation, which leads to the glow the crown. Moving away from the star, the crown goes to the heliosphere.

We briefly discussed the construction of star as nuclear reactor, so go to the physics of stars.

– Physics of the Sun and stars is also a completely revised. From the old theories left just the words «in the star is a synthesis of the nuclei». In the old theories of nuclear fusion in the star happens before helium forming a helium core. Particularly ambitious hypothesis extend the chain of synthesis before the carbon and iron. Our theory says that the entire periodic table of elements (Mendeleev), is synthesized in stars from hydrogen, as the primordial primary product. You ask – «what’s the difference, synthesis comes before the iron Fe or Fermi 100Fm?». To this question I answer unequivocally, that this fact is the key to unlocking of half of secrets the space physics.

Let us follow this chain of discoveries of cosmic physics. If in the star is a synthesis of transuranic elements, about what speak the facts, the accumulation and store of transuranic elements in the core. When the accumulation and store of transuranic elements in the core of the star – a white dwarf, the collapse of a star, namely, the white dwarf is not because gravitational compression (direct and indirect evidence of this physical phenomenon – not)but because of a chain reaction of nuclear fission of transuranic elements. Indirect evidence of this, is the fact, that depending on the explosion (collapse) of star power and of the explosion of the mass of the star. The same relationship exists for the use of uranium bombs, and the management of nuclear transuranic reactors. In these is used the property of transuranic elements to provide energy, depending on the ratio of the collected mass of transuranic elements, involved in the fission chain reaction, to the critical mass of these elements (subcritical mass, critical mass and supercritical mass). In a star with greater mass accumulated more transuranic elements than in the star with less mass. 

Consequently, the power of the explosion, by stars with greater mass above, that are logically and physically true, this fact is used to increase the power of the explosion of uranium bombs. Where did the gravitational collapse? The theory of gravitational collapse has been developed before existence of nuclear physics. The processes occurring at the end of star’s life (the expansion of gas stars, and then appears white dwarf) visually similar to the compression of the blast at the end. But a deeper analysis, we see that the extension does not happen complete star and her gas-plasma mixture, which is hampered by non-rigid plasma membrane. After her hot reducing gas-plasma mixture of star broke out. Because of the high temperature and radiation in the red range of light, we do not see a white dwarf – the core already ex star. After cooling, the gas-plasma mixture of the white dwarf is visually accessible. The explosion of the white dwarf is the result of huge portions of energy release in the uncontrolled chain reaction of nuclear fission of transuranic elements. Perhaps the big contribution by the explosion make a energy, released during the decay of unstable nuclei and the spontaneous decay of heavy and super heavy nuclei.

In what transformed a white dwarf after his collapse?

The answer is simple – or a neutron star or black hole.

Let us consider variant of the neutron star.

Continue our conversation, by the addition of the neutron star.

In what should turn a white dwarf after a nuclear explosion, with the participation of transuranic nuclear substances?

Mass of material remaining after the nuclear explosion of a white dwarf, with the participation of transuranic elements, is transformed into a neutron star. This neutron star, following our logical chain, must have the following options:

– Mass of remaining after the explosion should be less mass before the explosion;

– After a nuclear explosion transuranic material, the remaining mass must be increased by radiation from the radioactive neutrons and other radiation that is characteristic for nuclear reactions decay and fission;

– power of radiation in time, should decrease exponentially.

What the researchers saw?

An explosion of white dwarf mass ejection. Mass of remaining at the place of the white dwarf is radioactive, devices fixed on the Earth, this radiation. The power of this radiation decreases exponentially. Mass of remaining at the place of a white dwarf, has the power of gravity that exceeds the gravitational force of the star itself. These characteristics have a neutron star. These characteristics correspond to our forecast of the object, which was to stay after the explosion of a white dwarf in nuclear fission transuranic elements. Unique characteristic that does not conform to our forecast is the attractive force exceeds the gravitational force of the star itself. This characteristic we discuss later when considering the theme «black hole», where will see that this characteristic is in line with our forecast.

«Neutron Star» where fiction and where reality?

After the discovery of the neutron in 1932, on an emotional surge from the opening in 1932 – L.D. Landau, and in 1934 W. Baade and F. Zwicky, suggested the existence of an object composed of neutron and named it the neutron star. In 1967, Bell has found object, radiation exposure, and also on an emotional surge from the open, it was credited to a neutron star, since the other free objects was not predicted. 

In physics often predict the existence of not yet found objects, with the existing characteristics. Well, not just physics – the prophets.

The same happened with the neutron star, on an emotional surge from the discovery of the neutron, predicted the existence of neutron stars consisting of neutrons. And on an emotional surge from the opening of a new cosmic object, he was tied up with a neutron star. Under such emotional outbursts no matter what the object consists only of neutrons, can not exist. Not be found evidence of the existence dineutron, and attempts to synthesize it have failed. Consequently, the existence of stars consisting only of neutrons is not possible, and this fantasy of physicists of the last century. What happens with white dwarf of the small stars and neutron stars that have passed the stage of collapse and explosions of newest stars? If you follow our logical chain, these space objects moving into the stage of the planets that are logically elementary simple. Wandering in the universe and met his star, they will become part of the planetary system.

– Black Hole.

Modern theories of physics of the black hole are not logical, not clear and contrary to the basic physical law of conservation of mass.

What precedes the appearance of a black hole?

The collapse of a star, or more precisely nuclear explosion of enormous power.

 «Modern» theory of century- old claims that the explosion occurs as a result of gravitational contraction. Our doubts about the existence of gravitational collapse has already made‌‌. Irrespective of opinions about the collapse, consider what happens after the explosion. If valid, proven, fundamental law of physics – the law of conservation of mass, after the explosion of a star (collapse) of the epicenter of the explosion, the mass of the substance must be less than, the mass of the star before collapse. «Modern» theory, a hundred years ago, argues that the mass of the star after the explosion, on the contrary, increases. In the case of a black hole, there is not understandable a huge mass of dark matter, which creates a huge gravitational force. Where is the true, and where the fiction?

What the researcher sees a who studies a black hole?

The researcher sees the explosion, the release of the (whole) mass stars, and then from space, the gas and dust is attracted to the place where there was a star, and where there was an explosion. This attraction, the opinion of researchers, is under the influence of gravitational forces. And such a huge gravitational force can only create a huge mass; the mass is much greater than the mass of the star itself. But is not in the epicenter of gravity of the masses! But if the weight should be, but it does not, then it must be found. But, since it does not, and the force of gravity is, means, the weight should be, but it is not visible. And this invisible mass is a new kind of matter – dark matter. Not important that broken the basic law of physics, this violation not even notice. Does not matter that the dark mass do not exist, it took and came up with. And may the force that attracts gas and dust from space is not the gravitational force?

What force pulls gas and dust from space to a black hole, the white dwarfs and neutron stars?

That would solve the mystery of space; you need to look at the explosion of a nuclear bomb as a model of collapse of a star. With the explosion of a nuclear bomb, we see that the shock wave moves away from the epicenter in all directions. Then, the dynamic wave returns back to the epicenter of the explosion. What makes this dynamic wave back, because is not in the epicenter the mass, which would create a gravitational force. Dynamic wave forces to return VACUUM

Vacuum created after the explosion, the cause of a force is much greater than the gravitational force. It is a vacuum makes the air dynamic waves to return to the epicenter of the explosion. But the space is a vacuum of space?! Yes, the vacuum in space relative to Earth’s atmospheric pressure, but not absolute. After the collapse of a star in the epicenter the explosion is still vacuum region, the gas pressure with respect to space vacuum surrounding this area. But the importance of the vacuum is very small. That’s right! The value of vacuum is small, but the volume in which, there is this vacuum is huge, therefore, the area of ‌‌influence of pressure difference is huge. The force that acts inside, the vacuum region, is the product of pressure on the area (F = PS). With slight pressure, but a huge area, the force acting inside the vacuum region is enormous. The vacuum pressure of the gas with respect to outer space, which occupies a huge amount, creates huge forces that move the gas flow space, create a huge space vortices: – accretion disks of white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, discs and sleeves galactic. Cosmic vortices – give birth stars. It is the power vacuum created by an engine of the universe. Explosions of supernovas is two types of nuclear explosions at the end of a star’s life, a chain reaction of fission of transuranic elements and the renewed thermonuclear synthesis of hydrogen, by sucking gas from the surrounding space, in the amount of vacuum around the white dwarf or neutron star.

Galaxy. The development and evolution of galaxies, is the development and evolution of black holes and areas of the vacuum in the center of these galaxies.

Another mystery of space was opened, or even one error is corrected in astrophysics.

To correct this error, gives us the opportunity to understand the reason for of gravity of white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, physics of phenomena such as supernova explosions, the evolution of galaxies. And perhaps, the evolution of the universe.

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