Articles 3: Physics of black holes

1. Vacuum.

For review and analysis of the physical phenomena such as the collapse of a black hole, we need to consider other natural phenomenon, vacuum, which is the cause of the existence of a black hole.

In scientific studies, much attention is paid to topics such as dark matter, gravity, antigravity but study of such natural phenomena like the vacuum is practically minimal. Of course, there are theoretical studies of the absolute vacuum by theoretical physicists, but they are based on principle of Russian fairy tales — go there, I do not know where, finding that I do not know what.

In fact, the physical phenomenon, the vacuum, has a huge energy potential and powerful force field that is greater than the gravitational field many times. Unfortunately, modern scholars have overlooked this physical phenomenon, they do not see that huge force fields in space are created by the vacuum and not by gravity of dark matter that exists only in their imaginations.

Notion of vacuum in physics means a lack of pressure in the gas to some specific value (on Earth — to atmospheric pressure).

But the pressure and vacuum are energetic concepts as well.

Consider the examples of action of the force created by vacuum or more precisely of the force created by the difference in pressure levels in terrestrial conditions. Winds, cyclones, hurricanes, physical impacts of these natural phenomena lead to the destruction of homes, towns, to floods. Little difference in pressure between large amounts of gas creates great forces that can destroy buildings of people.

The question is: «What is the mass of material to be collected in one place, so that the impact of the gravitational force would be able cause the same effect?». The answer is simple and obvious — to create a gravitational force equal to the action of the forces of hurricanes the mass of matter must exceed the mass of the earth several times.

Consider the example of a physical trick with an inversion of a glass filled with water. We cover with a sheet of paper a glass filled with water and turn it over quickly, the bottom to the top. Under the influence of the gravitational force between the water in the glass and the earth, the water would have to leak to the surface of the Earth, but the water does not come out, but remains within the inverted glass.

1. What force keeps the water in the inverted vessel?

2. What should be the weight of the inverted container to keep water in it by the force of gravity?

3. What should be the specific gravity of the inverted vessel, which would create a gravitational force that would have kept the water in it?

The water in the inverted glass is held by force F=ΔP . S that is created by difference in pressure ΔP, between the inverted surface of the water and the inside surface of the bottom of the glass. Let us calculate the force holding the water in the inverted vessel through the difference in pressure. Take a cylindrical glass, this form simplifies the calculations (Fig. №1). In the case of a cylindrical glass shape, the contact surface area of the bottom of a glass with water and the area of the gas pressure of Earth’s atmosphere on the surface of water in the inverted vessel are both equal S.

                 S=π. R(m2),   R (m) — the inner radius of the glass.

The volume of water in the glass

                 Vw=S . H   (m3),   H (m) — height of the water level in the glass (height of the glass).

Mass of water in the glass

                 Mw=ρ . Vw  (kg),   ρ=1000 (kg/m3) - the water density (specific gravity).

The weight of water in the glass, or the force of gravity between the mass of water and the mass of the Earth:

            Q=Mw . g = ρ . Vw . g = ρ . S . H . g = ρ . π. R2 . H . g (N),

g=9.81 (m/s2) — acceleration of gravity on Earth.

These forces act on water in an inverted glass:

- the force of gravity between the mass of water Mw and mass of the Earth, Q=Mw . g  (N) and

- the force F=ΔP . S (N) that is created by pressure exerted on the surface of the water upside-down in a glass. Force F is directed in the opposite direction of force Q.

Here, ΔP=Pa -P0, Pa=101 325 Pa — atmospheric pressure, P0 — pressure between the bottom of the glass and water. Water in the glass does not move and is at rest, therefore, the forces F and Q cancel each other, ie, F=Q, or ΔP . S=ρ. S . H . g after simplifying formulas, and we can determine the pressure difference ΔP=ρ. H . g. That is, the water in the glass is held upside down by force F=ΔP . S (F=ΔP . S=Q=Mw . g).

During an experiment with a capacity of 0.34 liters, we have received the experimental data in Fig. №1 and table №1.

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                          1. Figure № 1                                             2. Table №1

Calculate the force F:

F = Q =Mw . g =0.398 . 9.81=3.334 N; at this value of F differential pressure must be

ΔP= ρ. H . g=1000 . 0.138 . 9.81=1353.78 Pa.

What is the mass of material to be collected in one place for that would create a gravitational force

FG = Q= F=3.334 N?

Calculate the weight of the vessel necessary to create the gravitational force FG, to hold 0.34 liters of water inside the overturned vessel. To keep the water inside the overturned vessel must be respected equality

FG = Q  or  FG = Q= F.

Consequently,

                                            (FG = (G . Mw . Mс)/r2)

Mс — mass of the vessel without water; r — the distance between the centers of mass of the water and the vessel;
G=6.6725 . 10-11 m3/(kg.sec2) - gravitational constant.

The formula for calculating Mс will be:

                                                  (Mс=(g . r2)/G)

The formula shows that the value of Mс depends on the distance r between the centers of mass of the water and the vessel. Table № 1 shows calculation results of Mс values ​​depending on the distance r between the centers of mass of the water and the vessel.

According to the formula ρс = Mс/Vс we have identified the specific gravity (density) of the material from which the vessel of mass Mс should consist. The results of the calculations made ​​to the table №1.

                                   CONCLUSIONS

The water in the inverted cup is hold by the power of a pressure differential ΔP or vacuum. The pressure drop ΔP operates between atmospheric pressure on the surface of water in upside down vessel and the pressure between the inside surface of the bottom of the vessel and the water.

To hold 0.34 liters of water in an inverted glass you must create a force FA=3.334 N. These force will be in opposite direction to gravitational force Q.

To create this effect using a vacuum you must create a pressure drop ΔP=1353.78 Pa on the area S=0.002463 m2. Action of the force F can not be visually observed, since its source — vacuum (pressure drop of gas) has no apparent source, and its presence can be visually identified by the instrument, or indirect evidence, if they are defined.

In modern astrophysics, these indirect data have not yet determined, therefore, to identify areas of modern astrophysics in the vacuum space is problematic.

In order to create the same effect with the help of gravity you must gather weight Mс=1.47 . 107 kg (14 700 tons) with the distance between the centers of mass of the vessel and the water r=1 sm., and the mass of Mс=3.98 . 1011 kg (3.98 milliard tons) with r = 1.5 m (at the same distance from the surface of the Earth was the inverted vessel of water).

 When taking into account the actual parameters of the vessel, its density (specific gravity) must be from

ρA =2.628 . 1012  kg/m3 to ρA =7.118 . 1015  kg/m3.

For comparison, we give examples of specific gravities of physical objects:
- Planet Earth —
5 515 kg/m3;
- Uranium —
U-238 – 19 050 kg/m3;
- The nucleus —
1013 – 1014 kg/m3, that 10 to 100 times lower than the calculated density of the inverted container with water.

Calculations and our experiments prove the existence of a high power and energy capacity of vacuum, and having almost infinitely high power and energy capacity in outer space! So slight pressure drop of gas between the huge volumes in outer space, creates huge forces that can move huge masses of gas (matter) in space.

- According to Bernoulli’s law, the orderly movement of the gas itself is a source of low pressure (ie, the source of the creation of a vacuum).

2. Physics of the black hole.

Despite the fact that hundreds of university scientists for decades look for the answer to a natural phenomenon called a black hole, despite the fact that these  scientists think they know what is a black hole, the mystery of the black hole is a mystery.  Modern theories on physics of the black hole are not logical, are not clear and contradict the basic physical law of conservation of mass.

The basic meaning of the modern theory of black holes is that at the center of a black hole there is a huge mass of dark matter, which can not be seen, and which attracts large masses of gas and dust from space. But in this theory there are more questions than answers.

Let us examine what the riddles of the black hole the researchers can not solve.

- Why, after the collapse of the star, the mass of the black hole is greater than the mass of the star?

- Where are the huge mass of the black hole? Why it is not visible?

- Why an accretion disk is formed, and what is it?

- What is a jet?

- Why the attraction of the black hole is stronger than the star attraction?

To answer these questions we need to understand the physics of the processes and events that take place in a black hole and around it. To do this it is necessary to solve an intellectual problem.

Suppose in the outer space there is a large region of vacuum in comparison with gas pressure of outer space. How can we find this amount of vacuum? Or how this amount of vacuum will display itself visually?  

Move  into the ground conditions. I will give examples in the photos — high vacuum regions in the earth’s atmosphere manifest themselves in the form of cyclones and tornadoes.

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3. Picture № 2. Cyclones, tornadoes.

In the photos of vacuum regions in the atmosphere we can identify several common characteristics of visual display of these areas:

1. Gas flow towards areas of low pressure. This fact is an indirect evidence, since movement of masses of gas in reaction to the existence of a vacuum.

But, as a vacuum itself is not visually seen, the fact that the motion of gas mass in the presence of other factors can be considered as a direct fact.

2. The lack of mass (large masses) in the middle region, around which the motion of gaseous masses occurs.  This fact is a direct fact that there is a vacuum region, as vacuum does not have a visual weight.

3. Tightening the gas flows into the gas funnel around the vacuum region. This fact is an indirect, although it can be considered as direct because gas craters are formed around the vacuum regions.

Remember these three features and get back into space and look at charts, photos and drawings of black holes and galaxies.

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 4. Figure № 3. Region of space around the large black holes.

What do we see? The motion of the gas masses, twisting gas flows into the gas funnel and no mass (huge mass) of the matter in the middle of the field to which the motion of the gas occurs.

After the analysis of drawings, diagrams and photographs of black holes and galaxies, we can conclude that at the center of black holes and galaxies, there is a huge VACUUM region relative to the gas space environment!

In fact, the physical phenomenon — the vacuum has a huge energy potential and powerful force field that is greater than the gravitational field many times. Unfortunately, modern scholars have overlooked this physical phenomenon, they do not see that huge force fields in space are created by the vacuum, and not by the gravity of dark matter. 

Opinion on the existence of the huge mass of matter in the center of a black hole is wrong!

Researchers have found a region of space in the cosmos, which attracted the gas and dust, forming a gas funnel of huge size. Since, this place draws substance, Astrophysics attributed this place as gravitational field.

If there is a gravitational field, it should be a source of gravity in its center. But the source of gravitation was not found …

What to do? Gravity is, and no source? Comes another theory about dark matter. As if there is dark matter that no one sees and no one can find it, and it creates a strong gravitational field. Invisible matter under magic hat. 

The emergence of theories about the existence of dark matter, gravitons, strings says that modern theoretical physics and astrophysics are in deep intellectual impasse. 

To escape this impasse we must get away from fantasy schizophrenic theories in theoretical physics, and go to the processing and analysis of data obtained empirically, that is, we must pass to the analytical physics.

In the analysis of the black hole, events were analyzed before and after its appearance. Similar physical events and processes in the Earth were identified and found, which may be models of events and processes in the case of  existence of black holes. These models of events and processes were analyzed and compared with the phenomena, events and processes that occur before and after the appearance of the black hole. This process of the analytical study revealed to us the physics of black holes and made it possible to make predictions, confirmed in the research process. From the experience of observing natural phenomena (cyclones, typhoons), we see that a small reduction in atmospheric pressure in large volumes drives a huge gas masses with high speed and causing enormous damage in populated areas, smashing houses, buildings and trees.

What tremendous force have invisible gas molecules, destroying homes and cities? What mass of matter must you collect in one place, so its gravitational force will do the same damage? 

Consider the chain of events. First, you need to analyze the events preceding the appearance of the black hole. The emergence of a neutron star and a black hole is caused by the collapse of stars. Power of the explosion at the moment of birth of a black hole more than power explosion at the moment of birth of a neutron star.

So, we came to the conclusion that the physical phenomenon (or a chain of physical events), called a black hole is a result of a nuclear explosion of enormous power at the time of the collapse of white dwarf stars of high mass.

Consider the physical phenomenon of the explosion and the chain of possible events after it.
At the epicenter of the explosion, the point A, the mass of Mo is located (Figure
№ 4).

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5. Figure № 4

At the time of the explosion τ > 0 the mass of a substance in its midst, under the influence of the explosion energy scatters in all directions at different speeds.

Mass Mo was completely thrown from the epicenter of the explosion, the point A.

If the explosion occurred in a gas medium, then after the explosion a vacuum is created at the epicenter of the explosion. It is the vacuum relative to gas pressure at the surrounding area. In space, after the explosion, a vacuum is created relative to the gas pressure in space area.

The ejected from the epicenter mass in motion creates a shock wave that expands in all directions, and with the expansion loses its energy and density. After the power loss and disappearance of the shock wave, the vacuum in the area around epicenter of the explosion sucks gas and dust in its volume and creates a shock wave moving in the opposite direction to point A — the epicenter of the explosion of the past. This physical phenomenon is observed in the Nuclear Tests (uranium and hydrogen bombs).
Consider the dynamic processes that occur during the testing of nuclear weapons. 

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                                                                                     6. Figure №5

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                                                                                  7. Figure №6
They are described in the books and shown in the documentary about the testing of nuclear weapons. After a nuclear explosion shock wave from the explosion goes in all directions, then it comes back to the epicenter (Figure
№5).

In the documentaries on the testing of nuclear weapons it is seen as an air shock wave moves in one direction, and then the same shock wave returns, moving in the opposite direction. In the explosions of atomic bombs of high power this physical phenomenon repeates several times (Figure №6).

Duration, speed and number of repetitions of such dynamic processes depend on the state and the density of matter and gas of the surrounding area, as well as on the power of the explosion. Since the density of gas and dust in space is low, the mass ejected from epicenter of the explosion, retains its high speed for a long time. Passing, it takes with it occurring atoms and molecules of cosmic gas. Perhaps while the great mass of matter moves at high speed, a moving stream of matter absorbes particles of dust and gas from the space according to the law of Bernoulli.  If this assumption is correct, the amount of vacuum around the epicenter of the explosion also increases by an ejector effect – absorption.

The greater the mass of the white dwarf, the more powerful of the explosion, the greater the amount of vacuum and the «depth» (value) around the epicenter of the explosion. The more powerful of the explosion , the higher the velocity of the particles, the greater the suction effect, the deeper and larger the vacuum. The parameters of the vacuum around the epicenter depend on the density of gas and dust in this area the outer space.

So, after the explosion (collapse) of the star of a large mass, at the center of the explosion a deep vacuum is created relative to the state (pressure and density) of the interstellar matter. This is a black hole. After dissipation of the mass of a white dwarf which was ejected by the explosion from the epicenter, the interstellar matter is sucked into the vacuum volume. In figure №7 shows the process.

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                                                               8. Figure 7
Particles, sucked by the vacuum, increas their speed. Nucleus and heavy atoms leave the epicenter of the explosion, and light nuclei of hydrogen return there. Maybe it increases the velocity of atoms moving into the epicenter.

The volume of the vacuum, and more specifically, the volume of the black hole is huge, its radius is millions and billions miles. By sucking matter into the black hole, a funnel is formed that is the same as air funnels in the air, cyclones and tornadoes. These examples can be used to create a physical-mathematical model. The scientific hypothesis about existence of some dark matter whose gravitational field attracts matter from outer space, is wrong.

Of all the collected research data, only one indirect evidence, the motion of matter to a black hole, suggests the existence of a huge mass in the center. All other indirect and direct data (visual absence of matter at the center of a black hole) indicate the absence of the great mass in the center of the black hole. But the indirect evidence of attraction of matter to a black hole, can talk not about the presence of a huge mass of matter in the center, but about the presence in this place vacuum which explains the presence of all other research data, both indirect and direct. The vacuum can be determined only on indirect evidence, since it has no visible source of attraction, and the direct evidence of the impact of vacuum on the matter is the apparent absence of a source of attraction of matter.

Calculate the power of action of the vacuum, occupying a huge volume of outer space. Gas pressure in the space pс=133.322 . 10-16 Pa, the gas pressure in the vacuum area after the blast ~ zero, so the pressure difference between the gas and the vacuum of outer space zone pсv=133.322 . 10-16 Pa.

Insignificant for earthly yardsticks differential pressure, at a massive scale creates enormous suction power. From formulas Fсv= pсv . Si=m . a, calculate the force acting on the surface of the vacuum with the radii from the center:
R1=1ua =1.49598 . 1011 m;  R2=1 ly =9.4605 . 1015 m;  R3=1pc =3.0857 . 1016 m.

Calculate the surface area of the ball in these cases by the formula: Si = 4 . π. Ri2
Thus, if a differential pressure
pсv=133.322 . 10-16 Pa, the initial force aimed at collecting the gas space in the vacuum region, are: for the radius of the vacuum region

R1=1 ua — Fсv=3.749 . 1011 N; for the radius R2=1 ly — Fсv=1.5 . 1018 N, and a radius

R3=1 pc — Fсv=1.59 . 1020 N, (Fig. № 8, the table 2).

We calculate the acceleration and speed of a hydrogen atom υH in space under the influence of the differential pressure pсv =133.322 . 10-16 Pa.
Apply the formula:
F= p . S=m . a; FсvH= pсv . SH=mH . a; υH=a . τ(at υ0=0)),

where: FсvH — the force acting on an atom of hydrogen at pressures vperepade pсv;
mH — the mass of a hydrogen atom; SH — cross-sectional area of the hydrogen atom;

a — acceleration of the hydrogen atom in space under the influence of the differential pressure pсv=133,322 . 10-16 Pa; υ0- initial velocity of the hydrogen atom; υH — the rate of the hydrogen atom after a time τ

L =(a . τ2)/2 - the length of the traversed path. υcv

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                  9. Figure №8                                     10. Table №2

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                                                  11. Table №3

To compare the calculated data, hurricane wind, breaking trees and causing damage to housing, has a speed of 140 km / h.

According to our calculations, a hydrogen atom, going into outer space with the minimum acceleration a=7.031 . 10 -8 m/s2 the distance equal to the distance from the Sun to the Earth will have a speed of 522.17 km/h which is 3.7 times higher than the rate of hurricane winds on Earth. At a distance of one light year, or 16 677 years, the rate of the hydrogen atom is equal to 131 314 km/h.

From the calculations (Fig. № 8, table 2) we can see that a low pressure, which can be neglected in the Earth, in vast areas of space creates a tremendous force, aimed to the center of a black hole that could collect in one place a mass of matter in one or more of the stars and start a thermonuclear fusion reaction of light nuclei. The greater the volume of the black hole and the greater density of the gas in the space around the black hole, the greater the suction of gas and dust.

As can be seen from the analysis of examples we gave, the explosion in space creates a vacuum that takes a huge volume, where a force is born that sucks the gas and dust from the surrounding space.

What is the mass of material to be collected in the center of the black hole in order to create a gravitational force FGr equal to the force Fсv?

From the formula Fсv= MGAS . a define the initial mass of a gas getting  accelerating force a  and moving to the vacuum area to fill her with gas — MGAS=(Fсv)/ a. The calculation results are listed in the table 2 and 4.

The gravitational force that is necessary to create in the center of the black hole is given by:

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Mbh — gravitational mass of the black hole, or the mass of matter that must be collected in a black hole to create a gravitational force FGr=Fсv.
Mbh is given by:

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The calculation results are summarized in table № 4.

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                        12. Figure 9                                                13. Table № 4

From the results of the calculations we can see (table № 4), that to create a gravitational force FGr, equal to the force Fсv, created by the pressure differential pсv=133.322 10-16 Pa, in a volume with a radius of 1 ua, which is equal to the distance from the Sun to the Earth, the mass of 2.358 1025 kg should be collected in the center of the black hole. To create a gravitational force FGr= Fсvin a volume with a radius of 100 ua, which is equal to the volume of the heliosphere of the sun, you need to gather the mass of 2.358 1029 kg, that is more than 10% of the mass of the Sun, and by value is the mass of the small star. By increasing the volume of vacuum, or more precisely its sphere radius to 1 ly and 1pc, for FGr= Fсv, you need to gather in the center of the black hole the mass of matter of  9.43 1034 kg (4.7 104 = 47 000 solar masses) and 1.003 1036 kg (5.044 105 = 504 400 solar masses), That is, if the vacuum (pressure difference ) is formed in outer space, in a volume with a radius of 1 ly and 1pc, the  suction powers of gas are formed , that equal to the gravitational forces of 47 000 solar masses (R = 1 ly) and 504 400 solar masses (R = 1 pc). In an open space, these forces only trigger off a «mechanism» of movement of space gas flows. After the start of the gas to its former place, gas from near regions begins to move, creating gas flows.

As the speed of the particles and the gas flow increases, the pressure on the walls of the flow is reduced and gas and dust from the space environment are sucked into the stream. The effect of such complex gas-dynamic processes under the influence of large by value strength occurs in visual absence of a source of strength, since the vacuum does not have a direct visual appearance and the definition of the source can only be analytically based on indirect evidence, which were considered at the beginning of this chapter. 

We examined the process of direct suction gas to the volume of space with low gas pressure (in the vacuum region of space). Analyzing similar processes in the Earth’s atmosphere, we see that these processes are accompanied by formation of rotating gas flow (gas funnels). Consider the possible effects of gas flow rotation on the process of suction of gas in the accretion disk of a black hole, a white dwarf, neutron star, the disks and arms of galaxies.

               The suction process (physics of the accretion disk).

The process of absorption of gas and dust in the black hole is accompanied by the formation of the accretion disk. Accretion disk phenomenon is also observed in terrestrial conditions — tornados, cyclones, water funnel.

To identify and analyze the possible processes in accretion disks and around them we need to analyze the processes occurring in the water funnels, tornadoes and cyclones in the gas medium. From Bernoulli’s law, we know that with increasing in the speed of the fluid in the tubes, the pressure of the liquid on the walls of the tubes is reduced. The same phenomenon is observed in the gas movement. If you put in a space next to and parallel to each other two sheets of paper and blow between them, they come close to each other (drawing № 10).

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                                                          14. Figure № 10

Closing in sheets suggests that the gas pressure on the sheets of the gas flow decreased.

Formulate the phenomenon by simple concepts.
Orderly movement of fluid flow reduces the static pressure of the liquid or gas in the lateral boundaries of the flow. With increasing speed of the fluid flow, the static pressure at the lateral boundaries by this flow is reduced.

Consider the case of gas flow in a circle (Figure 11).

- A gas stream, aiming to fill the vacuum, twists and moves in a circle. This movement of gas around the central vacuum region does not fill it with gas, but on the contrary sucks the rest of the atoms and molecules of gas from the vacuum zone (A). That is, the gas stream being designed to fill the vacuum region, becomes a natural compressor to preserve and maintain  the vacuum in the region A. A self-sustaining vortex is born.

 -A gas stream encounters another gas stream or multiple gas streams. If there is accordance gas flow characteristics required for the emergence of a vortex, a self-sustaining vortex is born.

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                                                                  15. Figure 11
We proceed from the actual data, which say that in filling large volumes of vacuum gas flow moves in a circle. Consider this movement of a gas flow. n figure
11, which shows the flow of the gas stream in a circle, we have divided the region of location of the flow into three parts — A, B and C. In zone B gas stream moves in a circle. On a gas particle in the B, except for a force making particles move in a circle, the centrifugal force should also act. This force is directed at increasing the gas flow or output of the particle from the flow in the direction of the zone C. If the value of the centrifugal force acting on the particle in the zone B, exceeds the forces aimed at keeping it in the zone, the centrifugal force throws this particle into zone C. At the border when leaving the zone B particle collides with the particles are sucked into zone B from zone C.  At the boundary of B and C the confrontation occurs of flows to the zone B with flows from the zone B and of energy of absorption towards the zone B with centrifugal forces directed from zone B.

In zone B itself the same opposing forces act, but not attached to flows, but to every particle. That is, every particle moving in a flow in the region B is subjected to impact of centrifugal force and the force of suction.

In the whirlwind the inner layers try to expand, and external layers try to contract.
Zone A is a special zone. A features of the area are:

- It is closed. If gas from the environment is sucked through the zone C into the zone B, then A is a closed area of the environment due to the circular closure of zone B. Zone A is the inner zone.

- In zone A action of the suction force coincides in the direction with the action of the centrifugal force. Coincidence in the direction of the centrifugal force and the suction force gives the maximum effect of the gas suction from zone A to zone B. And because zone A is closed, that in combination with the maximum suction effect creates the maximum possible vacuum in the area A.

- Despite the round isolation, Zone A is not closed completely. Through the top and bottom zone A has access to the external environment.

Atmospheric phenomena, cyclones, tornadoes, storms are bounded from below by the surface of the Earth, in space there is no such limit.

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                                              16. Figure№12

We consider the motion of particles in the gas vortex (Figure № 12).
As it can be seen in the area
№ 12 A gas is sucked from the upper layers because from below the vortex is limited by the Earth’s surface. In zone C the gas is sucked from the environment into zone B and gas particles are ejected by centrifugal forces from zone B, the absorbed and emitted gas particles collide (in zone C). This confirms our forecast.

If we look at the storms and tornados, we will see a rotating pillar of gas going up. In the upper atmosphere that pillar expands, becoming similar to air (water) funnel.

Beneath, at the Earth’s surface vortex is a spherical foggy area of gas and dust or water. In figure № 13 we see the case of a tornado formation at the surface of the Earth.

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                                           17. Figure №13.    

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                                           18. Figure №14.    

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                                           19. Figure №15. 

In figure №13 we see the case of a tornado formation in the upper atmosphere. The dynamics of development of the tornado shows that it is born by the rotation of the gas flow. The process of formation of a tornado is similar to the process of the formation of a water funnel (Figure №15). Probably, these cases can be taken as a model of the formation and development of the galaxy with a black hole at its center. Possible, cosmic tornadoes are also formed in several ways.

                          — Accretion disk
Accretion disk appears when there are white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. Hence, in all these cases, at the center of the accretion disk there is a region of vacuum. This vacuum region should surround the white dwarf and a neutron star. The absence of these objects in the center of the accretion disk indicates the presence of a black hole.

Dynamic processes in the accretion disk promote the birth of new (young) stars, and its rotation, possibly creates an ejector effect, ie the effect of absorption of gas and dust in the outer and inner edge of the accretion disk.

Absorption of gas and dust be an accretion disk is clearly seen in binary systems, where the first object is a black hole or a white dwarf or a neutron star with an accretion disk, and the second object is a normal star like object SS433 (Figure №16). In this case, is clearly seen as a gas-plasma sheath of a normal star is sucked into the outer layers of the accretion disk, which confirms our hypothesis.

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                                                            20. Figure №16

The increase in mass of the accretion disk increases the pressure, temperature and compression of matter in it, but also enhances the dynamic processes that creates the necessary conditions for the formation of a young stars. The process of increasing the mass of the accretion disk is carried out to its saturation with matter, that is, until the accretion disk gets some specific values ​​of density, pressure and temperature required for the birth of stars. Consequently, for the birth of stars it is necessary to increase the density, temperature, pressure, and dynamic processes.
Consider another mysterious phenomenon accompanying black hole — Jet (Figure №16). Schematically, this phenomenon is shown in figure number №17 — (3).
   

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                                                       21. Figure №17
From the standpoint of modern astrophysics jet can not be explained. From the standpoint of our proposed vacuum-vortex theory explanation of the phenomenon jet is elementary simple. Look at the pictures and drawings of tornadoes (Figure № 12, № 13 and № 17 — (1)). In the images we see a tornado at the bottom of the rotating gas-dust cloud from which a rotating pillar rises and represents the gas-dust funnel expanding in the upper layers. This pillar is the gas-dust jet of tornado. If you compare the image of a tornado and a jet, you can conclude that these phenomena have a common physics. Thus, jets emerging from the center of the black hole look like two mirrored tornadoes with a dust cloud at the center in the form of an accretion disk. If, during the analysis of the image of a tornado (Figure №17– (1)), to remove mentally the surface of the earth as spatial limitation, the atmospheric phenomenon tornado would probably also have the lower part in the form of the same gas-dust pillar mirrored down (Figure №17- (2)). If graphically construct a whirlwind or tornado, we can see the similarity to the whirlwind (of gas and dust) around the black hole and its jet. Dust cloud image is different from the image of the accretion disk, but this difference is only visual, it is related to differences in environmental conditions and size of tornadoes. Physics of the dust cloud and the accretion disk is the same — it is the rotation of gas and dust around the axis perpendicular to the gas-dust pillar or jets. Study of jet referred to as a directory object Herbig — Haro 49/50 (HH49/50) (Fig. №18) led NASA researchers to the conclusion that this object is a cosmic tornado. It confirms our theory.

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                                                      Cosmic Tornado HH49/50 (www.nasa.gov).

                                                                   22. Figure №18
Consider the development processes (increase) of the black hole, as the vacuum region of large amounts, comparable with the volume of galaxies on the example of the transition of the elliptical galaxy into a spiral galaxy. As the source object for analysis we take an elliptical galaxy, increasing its size throughout life.

                          What processes take place in the elliptical galaxy?

More detailed analysis of the processes occurring in the galaxies, is presented in the book «Analytical Physics. Analytical Astrophysics» in «Galaxies and the Universe». In the center of the elliptical galaxy a black hole with an accretion disk is located, and it is the main mechanism or engine of all the processes in the galaxy. This black hole and accretion disk suck the gas and dust from the surrounding space, creating a vacuum region around the black hole and the accretion disk. When certain parameters of the gas temperature, pressure, density are achieved, in the accretion disk fusion starts under the influence of dynamic processes. The gas collected from the black hole in an accretion disk is packed into the stars, which, under the influence of dynamic processes are thrown in different directions. What really happens in the volume of a black hole with an accretion disk, we do not know exactly. In the center of the galaxy remains an area of vacuum relatively the environment. That is, because of the existence of a black hole at the center of an elliptical galaxy the process occurs of collecting gas and dust, packaging it into stars and emission of these stars to the cosmos. As a result, in the center of the elliptical galaxy vacuum region is formed again, which supports the existence of the black hole in the center of the elliptical galaxy.

Flying in different directions stars surrounded by their heliosphere prevent penetration gas into the center of the elliptical galaxy from the surrounding space.

Over time, the collection of gas in the center of the elliptical galaxy, its packaging to the stars and the release of stars repeat. As a result of the repetition of such processes a spherical part of an elliptical galaxy is shaped, in the spiral galaxy it is called — the bulge. In the spherical part of elliptical and spiral galaxies the gas density is very low, and stars fluttering with there heliospheres heat internal gas of the galaxy and prevent rapid filling of the vacuum region. Vacuum area increases in the spherical part of the elliptical galaxy, therefore, the bulge itself increases. Moving away from the center of the elliptical galaxy, stars are aging, and the distance between neighboring stars on isophotes increases. In volume of the bulge there is low concentration of gas and dust relative to the surrounding space. That is, within the bulge, vacuum is located relatively pressure of the surrounding space environment, which sucks the gas and dust from the surrounding space.

Suction gas and dust into the volume of vacuum forms gas funnel, tornado or waterspout of huge size, for the black hole it is an accretion disk.

Consequently, a similar gases funnel or a vortex of huge size looking like accretion disk around the black hole should form while filling of the vacuum in the bulge. Where is the disk in a galaxy? 

In the formation gaseous disk around the elliptical galaxy, the elliptical galaxy turns into spiral one. And a galactic disk with sleeves or no sleeves is a prototype of an accretion disk around a black hole. That is, the accretion disk and disks of galaxies have the same physics and nature. They differ only in size. By observing and analyzing the processes occurring in the disks of galaxies, we can analyze the processes in the accretion disk of a black hole. That is, the disk of the galaxy — is an accretion disk of an overgrown vacuum region. The processes of star formation in the galactic disk may be possible projected onto the star formation processes in the accretion disk.
Under what physical processes stars form in the disks of galaxies?

Perhaps at the time of movement the gas in the galactic disk  swirling flow of gas occurs, leading to the formation of a black hole, and then to birth of stars.

Perhaps in the course of the movement of the gas stream, clumps of matter are created, and under the influence of dynamic processes the fusion begins.

Perhaps the source of the dynamic processes, by which stars are born in the disks of galaxies and their sleeves, is a dynamic process in the center of the galaxy (at the center of the bulge in the black hole) at the time of birth and ejection of stars. Other variants are possible, accurate answers can be given only after the information gathering and analysis.
After saturation the accretion disk of a black hole by the gas a nuclear explosion or series of explosions occur. During these explosions stars are born and ejected from the galactic center. During this time, the process of absorption of the gas in the galaxy’s center stops, but the flow of gas to the center of the disk of the galaxy and in outer space continues by inertia. This motion of the gas encounters the powerful dynamic shock wave, born from an explosion in the center of the galaxy and possibly packing of the  gas occurs in the disk and the arms of the galaxy, which, perhaps, is the reason for the formation of stars in the disk and arms of galaxies. Perhaps there is a possibility of formation of stars during the gas flow as well.  We do not yet know the cause of the formation of stars in the flow of gas and galactic disks, but there are  facts of  formation of stars in the center of the bulge, where the black hole is located and in the gas streams of the  disks and the arms of the galaxy.

Therefore, we can conclude — stars are formed in two ways: as a result of dynamic processes in the space around the black hole and in the dense gas flows of outer space, including the disks and arms of galaxies (spiral galaxies).

To model the processes occurring in the galaxies, it is necessary to consider that the cause of all the processes taking place in them is the existence of a black hole at its center. The reason for the evolution of galaxies are the events that take place in a black hole and with a black hole. That is, the lens and spiral galaxies spin out of the center, where a black hole and its accretion disk are located.

Publication of research of a team led by Dr. Stanislaw Shabana of star formation in the galaxy center, near a black hole, confirms the results obtained in our analyzes. 

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(The team, led by Dr Stanislav Shabala of the University of Tasmania, Dr Mark Crockett of the University of Oxford, and Dr Sugata Kaviraj of Imperial College, London, publish their results in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.).                                                           

                                                              23. Figure №19
The absorption of a star by the black hole.
Consider the case of absorption of a star by the black hole figure №20.

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                                                         24. Figure №20

From the picture of capture of the star (the red giant), by the black hole, it is clear that the star is stretched to a great distance, and is absorbed by the black hole, moving on the path of the gas funnel. This unusual movement is not typical for the gravitational capture. An example of gravitational capture is the movement of stars in binary systems and the movement of the planets around the star. In none of these cases we do not observed the process of breaking the object, its gaseous envelope, and this kind of movement under the influence of the gravitational field. The gravitational field affects on the entire object, especially on the part in which there is a large mass. This part of the star is the core — a white dwarf. That is, the greatest gravitational effects should be subject to the core of the star, as on theoretical assumptions about half the mass of the star is located at its core. In the case shown in figure №20, the force effect is on the surface of gas-plasma mixture and the stellar envelope. Such a force effect is possible only in case of capturung the stars by a strong gas flow. Stellar wind of the star can not hold back the force effect of the gas flow, which got a star. Consider a simulation movie NASA of absorption of red giant by a black hole, drawing №20-A.

For a more objective understanding of the physical processes taking place with the star, in figure №20 -B we marked the location of the black hole and the trajectory of the gas stream moving toward the black hole, which can not be seen in figure №20 -A. In the chemical composition of the red giant practically already there is not hydrogen which is a high-energy nuclear fuel. No stellar wind, and if there is, it is very weak with a low density. Probably, most of the particles of stellar wind, do not have enough speed and impulse to overcome the force of gravity of the red giant.

The heliosphere of a star defends the star from gas streams, moving in space, from the gas stream flowing to the black holes. In the case of binary systems, where the first object is a white dwarf, neutron star or black hole, and the second one is the star, the absorption of the star by the first object depends on the counter-forces of a gas flow moving to the first object with the stellar wind and fields, created by the second object, ie the star. A high-energy plasma cover of the red giant star is no longer able to hold the gas-plasma mixture in its entirety. The volume of gas-plasma mixture of the red giant is increasing, and since the stellar wind is weak or absent, its gas-plasma mixture, under the influence of external would deform more easily than gas-plasma mixture of simple star. What processes are in fact a red giant, no one yet knows, we can only predict them analytically, analyzing the available proxy data.

Let us turn to the picture №20. The photos 1, 2, 3 show the movement of the red giant near a black hole, which, due to lack of light, does not manifest itself. The deformation of the red giant says about the existence of a black hole. But, in terms of gravity, type of deformation of the star is not clear. In the case of gravitational effects, deformation star would have gone in a straight line connecting the red giant star and a black hole, and the trajectory of the star would have had a clear deviation in the direction of the black hole. What do we see in the NASA simulation movie (Figure №20)? We can see in the photos 1, 2, 3 deformation of the gas-plasma membrane of the red giant. This deformation occurs not in the direction of the black hole, but in the direction of gas flow moving toward the black hole! But since there is no light, we are do not see this thread in the first pictures. Why is gas-plasma mixture of the red giant deformed in the direction of the gas flow? By Bernoulli’s law, with increasing flow rate of a liquid or a gas, the pressure on the walls of the flow of the stream is reduced. And at high flow rates, the particles of dust and gas from the surrounding space are absorbed into the gas flow (Figure №10), creating around the flow low pressure relative to the surrounding environment. Consequently, between the star (red giant) and the gas stream flowing to the black hole, there is a low pressure relative to the surrounding space. Moving gas stream, sucks gas and dust from the environment, creating additional gas flows directed to the more powerful gas flow. Under the influence of low pressure between the star and the gas flow directed toward the black hole, and under the influence of the secondary gas flows, the gas-plasma mixture of the red giant is deformed.

In the picture 3 we see the beginning of suction of the gas-plasma mixture of the star to the gas flow. In photos 4 and 5 the gas-plasma mixture of the star is completely absorbed to the gas stream moving toward the black hole. Since the fuel, ie hydrogen, arrived   to the gas-plasma mixture of stars from the gas stream, thermonuclear explosion occurred of large amount of hydrogen. This fact indicates, that in the gas-plasma mixture of the red giant, the nuclear reaction occures and possible the nuclear fusion does as well. Hot and glowing gas absorbed by the black hole, highlighted its design. 

That is, the design of the black hole, which we see in photographs 6 and 7, already existed before absorption star black hole. The absorption of the glowing gas (plasma) by the black hole has opened (lighted) its design and has revealed a trajectory (path) of the gas absorbed by the black hole.

Consequently, the deformation and the absorption of the red giant is not due to the gravitational effects of a black hole on the star, but because of the gas flows in the space created by the vacuum fields (with lower pressure) in black holes, around the white dwarf and the neutron star. To exclude the effect of the gravitational field is not possible because in the accretion disk a mass of matter is collected, which creates its own gravitational field. And where there is accretion disks around white dwarfs and neutron stars, gravitational fields is generated as by the matter of accretion disks, and by the matter of white dwarfs and neutron stars. But the strength of the gravitational fields is very small and insignificant relative to the forces generated by differential gas pressure (vacuum) in space.

If the construction of the black hole is the same as a huge cyclone or a tornado, the motion of the gas particles, plasma and dust in a black hole and its jet should be similar (analogous), the movement of the particles of gas and dust in a tornado or in a cyclone. In photos 6 and 7 of figure №20, NASA simulation film, we see the trajectory of glowing gas and plasma around the black hole. The same motion of particles occurs in a tornado.

Consequently, physical phenomena such as black hole, cyclones, tornadoes have one physics, and are the result of forces generated by pressure drop of gas in large spatial volumes, but not by increased gravity.

Of particular interest is the trajectory of the particles in the jet black hole is of particular interest. On the photo 6 of Fig. №20 we see that after passing inside the accretion disk of a black hole, the gas particles enter the jet and show its bottom part (the part of the jet located near the accretion disk).

On the photo 7 in Fig. №20, it is clear that the particles are moving forward — up the jet.

We will compare and analyze the motion of the particles in the jet with the motion of particles in a pillar of a tornado, Fig. №12on simulation training film «The formation of a tornado», which was filmed in 1975 in the Soviet Union. Comparison of the trajectories of the particles in a pillar of a tornado and in a jet of a black hole (Figure №12and Figure №20), found the perfect resemblance of the trajectories of particles motion in both cases. Particles of a tornado lifts up on the walls of its pillar (Figure №12). The same movement occurs in a jet of a black hole. Analysis of the two simulation films of two different physical phenomena produced by different countries, with the difference in time in 36 years, shows that the physical processes occurring in the black hole and the physical processes that occur in cyclones and tornadoes, are the same.

Cases of absorption of a star by a black hole are shown in Figure №20-8. They absolutely confirm the theory of the existence of the force field of a black hole as a force field created by differential gas pressure (vacuum) in space (inside a black hole), and the absence of the great mass of the dark (or some other) matter at its center . And, consequently, the absence of a huge gravitational field of a black hole (white dwarfs and neutron stars).

There is a mystery relative to capture of stars that researchers of the space must solve:
- How does the core of a star, a white dwarf, act being captured by a black hole? To answer this question it is necessary to trace the movement of radioactive object inside the red giant. Since the core of a star, a white dwarf, must have radioactivity characteristic for atomic elements  of the middle and the end of the periodic table, then from the radiation, which is characteristic for such elements, the location of the white dwarf star, the star’s core, can be determined.

                                   - Conclusions.

As a result of the analysis conducted in this paper, we can conclude:
1. In a black hole there is no huge mass of matter, and no dark matter.
2. Dark matter does not exist!

   3. Based on the data obtained from the study of space, black holes are created by the explosions of white dwarfs –  the nuclei of stars of large masses, and by the explosions at the center of galaxies.

   4. Based on data from the study of tornadoes and vortices, the birth of a black hole is possible at a meeting of several gas flows, and at a meeting of the gas stream with an obstacle. As a result, it may be twisting these flows and the birth of the vortex passing into a black hole.

   5. Black hole is a region of vacuum relative to the parameters of the gas in the surrounding space. When this vacuum is filled wit gas, large gases funnel or tornado appears in the form of an accretion disk.

   6. The black hole of the galactic size is a huge vortex or tornado, sucking the gas and dust from the space, packing this gas into stars and throwing the stars back into the space.

   7. As the size of the vacuum in the elliptical galaxy increases, sizes of cosmic tornado increase, going from elliptical galaxies to lenticular galaxy, and then to a spiral galaxy, whose disc and sleeves are a whirlwind of galactic size.

   8. Evolution of galaxies follows the law of evolution of a water funnel. With a small hole for  outflow of a liquid, the crater is not formed in the liquid, the increase in openings for outflow of a liquid leads to a water funnel, then to an increase it, and if the hole continues to increase,  the water funnel disappears.

In this short article, all mysteries of black holes are unravel, which we discussed at the beginning of the report. Modern astrophysics is in the intellectual crisis, due to outdated theories. The only way is to go out of the old, dead theories to the analytical physics — the physics of the 21st century!


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